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Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
Predynastic Period
Protodynastic Period
Early Dynastic Period
1st 2nd
Old Kingdom
3rd 4th 5th 6th
First Intermediate Period
7th 8th 9th 10th 11th
Middle Kingdom
11th 12th
Second Intermediate Period
13th 14th 15th 16th 17th
Abydos Dynasty
New Kingdom
18th 19th 20th
Third Intermediate Period
21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th
Late Period
26th 27th 28th
29th 30th 31st
Hellenistic Period
Argead Dynasty
Ptolemaic Dynasty

The Fourteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt (ca. 1805/1710–1650 BC?) was a series of rulers of Canaanite origin that reigned over the eastern part of the Nile Delta in Lower Egypt from the city of Avaris.[1] It existed concurrently with the Thirteenth Dynasty based in Memphis, and possibly the Fifteenth Dynasty of the Hyksos as well. Given their shared Semitic origins, the rulers of the 14th and 15th Dynasty may have been related.

The 13th to 17th Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Second Intermediate Period.

Throughout the centralised rule of the 13th Dynasty, Canaanite immigrants settled in the eastern Nile Delta. A Canaanite political takeover in the region seems to have occurred ca. 1710-1680 BC, since this time records changes in social structure and burial patterns at Avaris (modern: Tell el-Dab'a), as well as the foundation of a large Canaanite-style temple attributed to Aasehre Nehesy.[2][3]

Rulers[]

In his Aegyptiaca, Manetho proposes 76 kings for this dynasty, while the Turin Canon originally listed a total of at least 71 (taking the document's lacunae into account). These are incredibly high numbers of rulers for a dynasty that lasted merely 50-150 years and might suggest that these kings did not all rule consecutively. Additionally, only a few are attested in contemporary sources, leaving their existence doubtful (eg some may be pseudonyms of other rulers). Most likely, many of them ruled concurrently over different parts of the Delta. According to Manetho, the dynasty was based in Xois, which may have been one of their seats of power besides Avaris.

The order of rulers for this dynasty, as established by the Turin Royal Canon, is widely accepted. Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt places five more rulers at the start of the 14th Dynasty.[1] The names of these rulers are not given in the Turin Canon, except possibly for one, and Ryholt proposes that they were mentioned as wsf in the list, which denotes a lacuna in the original document from which the list was copied in the Ramesside period.[1] Rather, Ryholt bases this on his seriation of the different scarab-type groups, which inverts groups 1-3 of William Ayres Ward. Krauss likewise reverses these groups in Ward's seriation.[4] To support the early placement in his seriation, Ryholt dates group 3 using the high chronology of the Middle Bronze Age phases in Palestine. However, Daphna Ben-Tor points out that this chronology is "highly controversial" and "can no longer be accepted".[5] The archaeological evidence from Egypt and the Levant supports the sequence proposed by Ward[6] and their archaeological context is currently dated to the 15th Dynasty of the Hyksos.[7][5] Hence, these five kings (namely Sheshi, Ammu, Ya'ammu, Yakbim and Qareh), as well as Yaqub-Har, are contemporary with the second half of the Hyksos' 15th Dynasty instead of the early Memphite 13th Dynasty. As a result, Ben-Tor concludes that these kings were most likely either Hyksos kings of the 15th Dynasty or their minor vassal rulers in the Nile Delta.[8] In case of the latter, the 14th Dynasty may have continued in coexistence with the 15th Dynasty.

Fourteenth Dynasty (contested)
Name Dates Comments
Sekhaenre Yakbim 1805-1780 BC[1] or after 1650 BC[8] Acording to Ryholt, he was the dynasty's founder.
Nubuserre Ya'ammu 1780-1770 BC[1] or after 1650 BC[8]
Khauserre Qareh 1770-1760 BC[1] or after 1650 BC[8]
Aahotepre Ammu 1760-1745 BC[1] or after 1650 BC[8] The prenomen Aahotepre is assigned to Ammu by Ryholt, while Ward assigns Khauserre to this king.[9]
Maaibre Sheshi 1745-1705 BC[1] or after 1650 BC[8]

The following rulers are not controversial, being established by the Turin Canon as well as, for a few of them, by contemporary sources:

Fourteenth Dynasty
Name Dates Comments
Unknown Space for one king lost in a lacuna of the Turin kinglist. Ryholt speculates that it was attested as wsf ("lost"), indicating a lacuna in the document from which the list was copied. Thereby allowing any number of kings.[10]
Aasehre Nehesy ca. 1705 BC Best attested king of the dynasty, he left his name on two monuments at Avaris. His name means "Nubian".[11]
Khatiyre 1705 BC Turin canon: reigned 0 years, [lost] months, 3 days.
Nebfautre 1704 BC Turin canon: reigned 1 year, 5 months, 15 days.
Sehebre 1704-1699 BC Turin canon: reigned 3 years, [lost] months, 1 day.
Merdjefare 1699-1695 BC Attested by a single stela from Saft el-Hinna, in the Delta.[12]
Sewadjkare III 1695-1694 BC Turin canon: reigned 1 year, [lost] months and days.
Nebdjefare 1694-1693 BC Turin canon: reigned 1 year, [lost] months and days.
Webenre 1693 BC Turin canon: reigned 0 years, [lost] months and days.
Unknown Attested as wsf ("lost") in the Turin kinglist, indicating a lacuna in the document from which the list was copied. Thereby allowing any number of kings.
…djefare After 1693 BC
…webenre
Autibre
Heribre
Nebsenre Attested by a jar bearing his prenomen. At least 5 months of reign.
…re
Sekheperenre With Nehesy, Nebsenre and Merdjefare, only undisputed king known from contemporary sources.
Djedkherure
Seankhibre
Nefertemkare
Sekhem…re
Kakemutre
Neferibre
I…re
Khakare
Aakare
Semen…re
Djed…re
Unknown 6 kings lost in a lacuna of the Turin kinglist.
Seneferankhre Pepi III (?) Preserved in the Turin kinglist as "Senefer…re", but may be restored as "Seneferankhre Pepi III", a king attested on a single scarab-seal. According to Ryholt, however, the seal stylisticly does not belong to the Second Intermediate Period.[1]
Menibre
Djed…
Unknown 4 kings lost in a lacuna of the Turin kinglist.
Inek…
Ineb…
Apepi Preserved in the Turin kinglist as "Ip…", but may be restored as "Apepi".[1][13]
Hab
…sa…
Hapu I
Shemsu
Meni…
Werqa…
Unknown 2 kings lost in a lacuna of the Turin kinglist.
…ka
…ka
Unknown Name lost in a lacuna of the Turin kinglist.
…ren Hapu II
Djedkare Aanati Nomen is either Aanati[14] or Nebenanati.[15]
…kare Bebnum Attested on an isolated fragment of the Turin kinglist, which makes the chronological position difficult to ascertain. Analysis of the fibers of the papyrus led Ryholt to place the fragment in this position (entry 9.30 as per Gardiner).[1]
Unknown Name lost in a lacuna of the Turin kinglist.
I…
Set…
Sunu…
Hor III
Unknown 2 kings lost in a lacuna of the Turin kinglist.
Nib…
Mer…en…
Penensetetensepet
Kherethebshepesu
Khuthemet…
Unknown ca. 1650 BC Space for one king lost in a lacuna of the Turin kinglist (entry 10.12 as per Gardiner). Could even contain an entry as wsf ("lost"), indicating a lacuna in the document from which the list was copied. Thereby allowing any number of kings. The list then reports the fragmented formula for the sum of the years, which indicates a change of dynasty.

Finally, several rulers attested by contemporary artefacts and otherwise unknown from the Turin Canon may be dated to the 14th Dynasty.[1] Their chronological positions remain unclear:

Fourteenth Dynasty (uncertain)
Name Attestations Comments
Meruserre Yaqub-Har 27 scarab-seals After 1650 BC,[8] possibly a Hyksos king of the 15th Dynasty.
Wazad 5 scarab-seals His prenomen remains unknown and is required for placement in the Turin Canon.
Sheneh 3 scarab-seals His prenomen remains unknown and is required for placement in the Turin Canon.
Yakareb 2 scarab-seals His prenomen remains unknown and is required for placement in the Turin Canon.
Nuya 1 scarab-seal His prenomen remains unknown and is required for placement in the Turin Canon.
Shenshek 1 scarab-seal His prenomen remains unknown and is required for placement in the Turin Canon.
Khamure 2 scarab-seals His nomen remains unknown. His prenomen cannot be accounted for in the Turin Canon. It presumably did originally feature in a lacuna or was already lost when the document was written, thereby possibly attested as wsf ("lost").
Aanetjerre ? scarab-seals His nomen remains unknown. His prenomen cannot be accounted for in the Turin Canon. It presumably did originally feature in a lacuna or was already lost when the document was written, thereby possibly attested as wsf ("lost").
Meribre ? scarab-seals His nomen remains unknown. His prenomen cannot be accounted for in the Turin Canon. It presumably did originally feature in a lacuna or was already lost when the document was written, thereby possibly attested as wsf ("lost").
Nubankhre ? scarab-seals His nomen remains unknown. His prenomen cannot be accounted for in the Turin Canon. It presumably did originally feature in a lacuna or was already lost when the document was written, thereby possibly attested as wsf ("lost").
Nikare II at least 4 scarab-seals His nomen remains unknown. His prenomen cannot be accounted for in the Turin Canon. It presumably did originally feature in a lacuna or was already lost when the document was written, thereby possibly attested as wsf ("lost").

References[]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 Ryholt 1997.
  2. Bietak 1997, p. 105-109.
  3. Ben-Tor 2007.
  4. Krauss 1998, p. 39-42.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Ben-Tor et al. 1999, p. 58.
  6. Ben-Tor 2010, p. 105.
  7. Bietak 1991, p. 52-53.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 Ben-Tor et al. 1999, p. 47-73.
  9. Ward 1984, p. 164-165.
  10. Ryholt 1997, p. 10–11.
  11. Baker 2008, p. 277.
  12. Kitchen 1993, p. 546.
  13. Baker 2008, p. 57.
  14. French Wikipedia page
  15. Italian Wikipedia page

Bibliography[]

  • Baker, D.D., 2008: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC. Stacey International.
  • Ben-Tor, D./Allen, S.J./Allen, J.P., 1999: Seals and Kings. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR) 315.
  • Ben-Tor, D., 2007: Scarabs, Chronology, and Interconnections: Egypt and Palestine in the Second Intermediate Period. Vol. 27 of Orbis biblicus et orientalis / Series archaeologica: Series archaeologica, Academic Press Fribourg.
  • Ben-Tor, D., 2010: Sequences and chronology of Second Intermediate Period royal-name scarabs, based on excavated series from Egypt and the Levant. In: Marcel Marée (ed.), Second Intermediate Period. Uitgeverij Peeters, Leuven/Paris.
  • Bietak, M., 1991: Egypt and Canaan During the Middle Bronze Age. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR) 281.
  • Bietak, M., 1997: The Center of Hyksos Rule: Avaris (Tell el-Dab`a). In: The Hyksos: New Historical and Archaeological Perspectives. (ed.) E. D. Oren. University Museum Symposium Series, Vol. 8, Philadelphia.
  • Kitchen, K.A., 1993: Ramesside Inscriptions. Blackwell Publishing.
  • Krauss, R., 1998: An Examination of Khyan's Place in W.A. Ward's Seriation of Royal Hyksos Scarabs. Ägyptenund Levante, Vol. 7.
  • Ryholt, K., 1997: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800-1550 B.C. Museum Tuscalanum Press.
  • Ward, W.A. 1984: Royal-Name Scarabs. In: O. Tufnell, Scarab Seals and their Contribution to History in the Early Second Millennium B.C. Studies on Scarab Seals 2. Warm-inster: Aris & Phillips.
Preceded by:
12th or 13th Dynasty
Second Intermediate Period
14th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
15th, 16th and Abydos Dynasties
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