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Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
Predynastic Period
Protodynastic Period
Early Dynastic Period
1st 2nd
Old Kingdom
3rd 4th 5th 6th
First Intermediate Period
7th 8th 9th 10th 11th
Middle Kingdom
11th 12th
Second Intermediate Period
13th 14th 15th 16th 17th
Abydos Dynasty
New Kingdom
18th 19th 20th
Third Intermediate Period
21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th
Late Period
26th 27th 28th
29th 30th 31st
Hellenistic Period
Argead Dynasty
Ptolemaic Dynasty

The Fifteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt (ca. 1650-1530 B.C.) consisted of Canaanite rulers known as the Hyksos. Their seat of power was based in Avaris, ruling over the Nile Delta in Lower Egypt.

The Fifteenth, Sixteenth and Seventeenth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Second Intermediate Period.

The names and order of kings is uncertain. The Turin Kinglist indicates that there were six Hyksos kings, with an obscure Khamudi listed as the final king of the 15th Dynasty (line X.21 of the cited web link clearly provides this summary for the dynasty: "6 kings functioning 100+X years").[1] The surviving traces on the X figure appears to give the figure 8 which suggests that the summation should be read as 6 kings ruling 108 years. Some scholars have argued that there were two Apophis kings named Apepi I and Apepi II but this is primarily due to the fact that there are 2 known prenomens for this king: Aauserre and Aqenenre. However, the Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt maintains in his study of the Second Intermediate Period that these prenomens all refer to one Apepi, who ruled Egypt for 40+ years.[2] Apophis likely employed several different prenomens throughout various periods of his reign. This scenario is not unprecedented since later kings including the famous Ramesses II and Seti II are known to have used two different prenomens in their own reign. It is rather difficult to determine the order, length of reign, and identity of some of these kings, but the following names are believed to be of Hyksos kings, in some semblance of their actual, uncertain order.

Fifteenth Dynasty (Manetho)
Name Dates Comments
Salitis 19 years Mentioned by Manetho as first king of the dynasty; currently unidentified with any known archaeologically attested person.
Beon/Bnon 44 years Mentioned by Manetho as second king of the dynasty; currently unidentified with any known archaeologically attested person.
Apachnan 36 or 61 years Mentioned by Manetho as third king of the dynasty; currently unidentified with any known archaeologically attested person.
Siaan/Iannas 50 years Mentioned by Manetho as fourth king of the dynasty; identified with Khyan (Iannas is derived from Khyan's son Yanassi).
Apophis 61/14 years Mentioned by Manetho as penultimate king of the dynasty; certainly identical to Apepi.
Archles/Assis 40/30 years Mentioned by Manetho as last king of the dynasty; identified with Khamudi.
Fifteenth Dynasty (archaeologically attested)
Name Dates Comments
Semqen Mentioned on the Turin king list. According to Ryholt, he was an early Hyksos ruler, possibly the first king of the dynasty (thus possibly the same as Salitis); Von Beckerath assigns him to the 16th Dynasty as a vassal of the Hyksos.
Aper-Anat Mentioned on the Turin king list. According to Ryholt, he was an early Hyksos ruler, possibly the second king of the dynasty; Von Beckerath assigns him to the 16th Dynasty as a vassal of the Hyksos.
Anat-Har Scarab-seals credit him with the title "Hyksos". According to Ryholt, however, he was a Canaanite 14th dynasty ruler; Von Beckerath assigns him to the 16th Dynasty as a vassal of the Hyksos.
Sakir-Har Named as an early Hyksos king on a door jamb found at Avaris. Regnal order uncertain.[3]
Seuserenre Khyan c. 1600 BC (10+ years) First Hyksos king to start using a prenomen about halfway into his reign.
Yanassi c. 1595-1590 BC (±5 years) Eldest son and probably successor of Khyan. Most likely the same as Manetho's king Iannas.
Meruserre Yaqub-Har c. 1590-1580 BC (±10 years) May be a ruler of the 14th Dynasty[3] or a vassal of the Hyksos of the 16th Dynasty.[4] He is sometimes identified with Manetho's Beon/Bnon of the 15th Dynasty.[5][6] His scarab seals stylistically belong to the time of Khyan,[7] combined with the fact that he used a prenomen, if he indeed belongs to the 15th Dynasty, he likely ruled shortly after Khyan.
Aauserre Apepi c. 1580-1540 BC (40+ years)
Hotepibre Khamudi c. 1540-1530 BC (10+ years) Defeated by Ahmose II at Avaris c. 1530 BC.[8]
Fifteenth Dynasty (uncertain)
Name Dates Comments
Sharek Only attested as a Hyksos king on the genealogy of Ankhefensekhmet, a non-contemporary document. Proposed to be the same individual as Sheshi and Salitis.[9][10]

References[]

  1. Turin Kinglist Accessed July 26, 2006.
  2. Ryholt 1997, p. 125.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Ryholt 1997.
  4. Von Beckerath 1999.
  5. Redford 1992, p. 110.
  6. Bietak 2012, p. 4.
  7. Ben-Tor 2010, p. 96-97.
  8. Bietak 2005; Bietak's archaeologically-driven date for the fall of Avaris of c. 1530 BC.
  9. Hayes 1973, p. 59.
  10. Grimal 1992, p. 185.

Bibliography[]

  • Beckerath, J. von, 1999: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen. Münchner ägyptologische Studien, Heft 49, Mainz : P. von Zabern.
  • Ben-Tor, D., 2010: Sequence and Chronology of Second Intermediate Period Royal-Name Scarabs, based on excavated series from Egypt and the Levant in Marée, Marcel (Hrsg.): The Second Intermediate Period (Thirteenth - Seventeenth Dynasties). Current Research, Future Projects. Leuven-Paris-Walpole 2010, (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 192).
  • Bietak, M., 2005: Egypt and the Aegean: Cultural Convergence in a Thutmoside palace at Avaris. In: Hatshepsut: From Queen to Pharaoh (Hg. R. Dreyfus, C. A. Keller, C. H. Roehrig), The Metropolitan Museum New York. New Haven, London.
  • Bietak, M., 2012: Hyksos. In: Bagnell, Roger S.; et al. (eds.). The Encyclopedia of Ancient History. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Grimal, N., 1992: A History of Ancient Egypt. Blackwell Books, Oxford.
  • Hayes, W.C., 1973: Egypt: from the death of Ammenemes III to Seqenenre II. In: Edwards, I.E.S. (ed.). The Cambridge Ancient History (3rd ed.), vol. II, part 1. Cambridge University Press.
  • Redford, D.B., 1992: Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton University Press.
  • Ryholt, K., 1997: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800-1550 B.C. Museum Tuscalanum Press.
Preceded by:
13th and 14th Dynasty
Second Intermediate Period
15th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
18th Dynasty
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