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Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
Predynastic Period
Protodynastic Period
Early Dynastic Period
1st 2nd
Old Kingdom
3rd 4th 5th 6th
First Intermediate Period
7th 8th 9th 10th 11th
Middle Kingdom
11th 12th
Second Intermediate Period
13th 14th 15th 16th 17th
Abydos Dynasty
New Kingdom
18th 19th 20th
Third Intermediate Period
21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th
Late Period
26th 27th 28th
29th 30th 31st
Hellenistic Period
Argead Dynasty
Ptolemaic Dynasty


The Sixteenth Dynasty was a dynasty of pharaohs that ruled the Theban region in Upper Egypt for c. 70 years, contemporary with the Hyksos' Fifteenth Dynasty.

The Thirteenth to Seventeenth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Second Intermediate Period.

Vassals of the Hyksos[]

Egyptologists Jürgen von Beckerath and Wolfgang Helck follow Africanus (supported by Syncellus)[1] in his version of Manetho's Aegyptiaca,[2] which considers the rulers of the 16th Dynasty as "vassal kings of the Hyksos".

Vassals of the Hyksos[3]
Name Dates Comments
Anat-Har May belong to the early 15th Dynasty, possibly as merely a prince,[4] or might have been a Canaanite chieftain contemporary with the 12th Dynasty.[5]
Aper-Anat May belong to the early 15th Dynasty.[5]
Semqen May belong to the early 15th Dynasty.[5]
Sakir-Har May belong to the early 15th Dynasty.[5]
Apepi May be identical with the Hyksos ruler Apepi.[5]
Maaibre Sheshi May belong to the early 14th Dynasty.
Meruserre Yaqub-Har May belong to the late 14th Dynasty or late 15th Dynasty.
Nubuserre Ya'Ammu
Sekhaenre Yakbim
Ammu
Seneferankhre Pepi III
Hepu
Aanati
Bebnum
Nebmaatre Regarding the prenomen Nebmaatre. May belong to the 17th Dynasty in combination with the nomen Tao.
Aahotepre
Aanetjerre
Meribre
Nubankhre
Nikare II
…kare Three kings, whose name is preserved as "…kare"
Sharek
Wazad May belong to the 14th Dynasty
Qar May belong to the 14th Dynasty
Shenes
Inek…
I…
Apepi
Hibe
Aped
Hapi
Shemsu
Meni…
Werqa…

Theban Kings[]

Alternatively, Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt follows the version of Eusebius, which considers the 16th Dynasty as Theban.[2]

Theban Kings[5]
Name Dates Comments
Unknown 1649–1648 BC Name lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon
Sekhemre-Sementawy Djehuty 1648–1645 BC
Sekhemre-Seusertawy Sobekhotep VIII 1645–1629 BC
Sekhemre-Seankhtawy Neferhotep III 1629–1628 BC
Seankhenre Mentuhotepi 1628–1627 BC
Sewadjenre Nebiryrau I 1627–1601 BC
Neferkare Nebiryrau II 1601 BC
Semenre 1601–1600 BC
Seuserenre Bebiankh 1600–1588 BC
Sekhemre-Shedwaset 1588 BC May be a variation of the throne name Sekhemre-Shedtawy of the 17th Dynasty king Sobekemsaf II.[6]
Unknown 1588–1582 BC Five kings lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon
Theban Kings (uncertain order)[5]
Name Dates Comments
Djedhotepre Dedumose I May have tried to sue the Hyksos for peace
Djedneferre Dedumose II
Djedankhre Mentuemsaf
Merankhre Mentuhotep VI
Seneferibre Senusret IV Left a colossal statue of himself in Karnak

References[]

  1. Cory 1876.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Bourriau 2003, p. 179.
  3. Von Beckerath 1999.
  4. Hammond 1970, p. 58.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Ryholt 1997.
  6. Bennett 2002, p. 123-155.

Bibliography[]

  • Beckerath, J. von, 1999: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen. Münchner ägyptologische Studien, Heft 49, Mainz : P. von Zabern.
  • Bennett, C., 2002: A Genealogical Chronology of the Seventeenth Dynasty. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, Vol. 39.
  • Bourriau, J., 2003: The Second Intermediate Period. In: Shaw, Ian (ed.), The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press.
  • Cory, I.P., 1876: Cory's Ancient fragments of the Phoenician, Carthaginian, Babylonian, Egyptian and other authors. Reeves & Turner.
  • Hammond, N.G.L./Gadd, C.J./Sollberger, E., 1970: History of the Middle East and the Aegean region C. 1800-1380 B.C. Cambridge University Press.
  • Ryholt, K., 1997: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800 - 1550 BC. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
Preceded by:
13th Dynasty
Second Intermediate Period
16th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
17th Dynasty
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