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Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
Predynastic Period
Protodynastic Period
Early Dynastic Period
1st 2nd
Old Kingdom
3rd 4th 5th 6th
First Intermediate Period
7th 8th 9th 10th 11th
Middle Kingdom
11th 12th
Second Intermediate Period
13th 14th 15th 16th 17th
Abydos Dynasty
New Kingdom
18th 19th 20th
Third Intermediate Period
21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th
Late Period
26th 27th 28th
29th 30th 31st
Hellenistic Period
Argead Dynasty
Ptolemaic Dynasty

The dynasty was founded by Ahmose II, the brother of Kamose, the last ruler of the Seventeenth Dynasty. Ahmose finished the campaign to expel the hated Hyksos rulers. With this dynasty, the Second Intermediate Period ended, and the New Kingdom or the Egyptian Empire began. Highlights of this dynasty include: Queen Hatshepsut, who effectively ruled during the minority of her stepson, but was later considered a usurper; the first formal relations with foreign countries under Amenhotep III, of which some records were included in the el Amarna letters; and Akhenaten, who instigated the earliest verified expression of monotheism, (although the actual origins of monotheism are the subject of continuing research and debate). Scholars believe that Akhenaten's devotion to his God Aten offended many in power, which contributed to the end of this dynasty; he later suffered damnatio memoriae. Although modern students of Egyptology consider the monotheism of Akhenaten the most important event of this period, the Egyptians themselves considered the so-called Amarna period an unfortunate aberration.

The dynasty's final years were clearly shaky: the unidentified widow of King Nibhururiya (identified with either Akhenaten, Smenkhkare or Tutankhamun) wrote to Šuppiluliuma I, king of the Hittites, asking him to send one of his sons to be her husband and rule Egypt. Šuppiluliuma sent an ambassador to investigate, who reported that the situation was accurately described; however the destined Hittite prince Zannanza was murdered en route on the borders between the Hittite and Egyptian Empires, and the last two members of this dynasty – Ay and Horemheb – came from officials of the royal court. Šuppiluliuma reacted with rage at the news of his son's death by going to war against Egypt's vassal states in Syria and Northern Canaan and captured the land of Amki. Unfortunately, Egyptian prisoners of war from Amki carried a plague which would eventually ravage the Hittite Empire and kill both Šuppiluliuma and his direct successor.

The Nineteenth Dynasty of Ramesses I succeeded it in 1292 BC.

Rulers[]

Eighteenth Dynasty[1]
Name Dates
Nebpehtire Ahmose II 1540-1515 BC (25 years)
Djoserkare Amenhotep I 1515-1494 BC (21 years)
Aakheperkare Thutmose I 1594-1483 BC (11 years)
Aakheperenre Thutmose II 1483-1479 BC (4 years)
Maatkare Hatshepsut 1479-1458 BC (21 years)
Menkheperre Thutmose III 1479-1425 BC (54 years)
Aakheperure Amenhotep II 1426-1400 BC (26 years)
Menkheperure Thutmose IV 1400-1380 BC (20 years?)
Nebmaatre Amenhotep III 1380-1342 BC (38 years)
Neferkheperure-Waenre Akhenaten 1342-1325 BC (17 years)
Ankh(et)kheperure-Merywaenre Neferneferuaten 1326-1322 BC (4 years)
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare 1325-1323 BC (2 years)
Nebkheperure Tutankhamun 1322-1313 BC (9 years)
Kheperkheperure Ay 1313-1309 BC (4 years)
Djoserkheperure-Setepenre Horemheb 1309-1295 BC (14 years)

Timeline[]

Horemheb (pharaoh)Ay (18th dynasty)TutankhamunSmenkhkareNeferneferuatenAkhenatenAmenhotep IIIThutmose IVAmenhotep IIThutmose IIIHatshepsut (pharaoh)Thutmose IIThutmose IAmenhotep IAhmose II

See also[]

References[]

  1. Eaton-Krauss 2016.

Bibliography[]

  • Eaton Krauss, M., 2016: The unknown Tutankhamun. London/New York, Bloomsbury.
Preceded by:
15th ad 17th Dynasties
New Kingdom
18th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
19th Dynasty
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