Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the First Dynasty.
|Narmer||c. 3100/3050 BC||Probably identical to Menes|
|Hor-Aha||c. 3050 BC||Greek form: Athotís.|
|Djer||54 years (Palermo Stone)||Greek form: Uenéphes.|
|Djet||10 years||Greek form: Usapháis.|
|Merneith||c. 2950 BC||Possibly first female Pharaoh. Reigned for her son Den.|
|Den||42 years||Greek form: Kénkenes.|
|Anedjib||10 years (Palermo Stone)||Greek form: Miebidós.|
|Semerkhet||9 years (Palermo Stone)||Greek form: Semempsés.|
|Qa'a||34 years||Greek form: Bienéches.|
|Seneferka||c. 2900 BC (short reign)||Correct chronological position unknown.|
|Ba||c. 2900 BC (short reign)||Horus name of a king. Also known as Horus Bird. Correct chronological position unknown.|
Information about the Protodynastic Period is derived from a few monuments and other objects bearing royal names, the most important being the Narmer Palette. No detailed records of the first two dynasties have survived except for the terse lists preserved on the Palermo Stone. The Hieroglyphs were fully developed by then, and their shapes would be used with little change for a little more than three thousand years.
Large tombs of pharaohs or kings at Abydos, Naqada and Saqqara, in addition to cemeteries at Helouan near Memphis, reveal structures built largely of wood and mud bricks with some small use of stone for walls and floors. Stone was used in quantity for the manufacture of ornaments, vessels, and occasionally statues.