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Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
Predynastic Period
Protodynastic Period
Early Dynastic Period
1st 2nd
Old Kingdom
3rd 4th 5th 6th
First Intermediate Period
7th 8th 9th 10th 11th
Middle Kingdom
11th 12th
Second Intermediate Period
13th 14th 15th 16th 17th
Abydos Dynasty
New Kingdom
18th 19th 20th
Third Intermediate Period
21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th
Late Period
26th 27th 28th
29th 30th 31st
Hellenistic Period
Argead Dynasty
Ptolemaic Dynasty

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty of ancient Egypt was a short-lived group of pharaohs who had their capital at Sais in the western Nile Delta. This dynasty is often considered part of the Third Intermediate Period.

Tefnakhte I formed an alliance of the kinglets of the Delta, with whose support he attempted to conquer Upper Egypt; his campaign attracted the attention of the Nubian king Piye, who recorded his conquest and subjection of Tefnakhte of Sais and his peers in a well-known inscription. Tefnakhte is always called the "Great Chief of the West" in Piye's Victory Stela and in two stelas dating to the regnal years 36 and 38 of Shoshenq V.

Tefnakhte's successor, Bakenrenef, assumed the throne of Sais and took the royal name Wahkare. His authority was recognised in much of the Delta including Memphis where several Year 5 and Year 6 Serapeum stelas from his reign have been found. This Dynasty came to a sudden end when Shabataka, the third king of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, attacked Sais prior to his Year 3, captured Bakenrenef and burned him alive.

Twenty-Fourth Dynasty
Name Dates Comments
Shepsesre Tefnakhte I 725–718 BC (7 years) Known in Greek as Tnephachthos.
Wahkare Bakenrenef 718–713 BC (5 years) Known in Greek as Bocchoris.

Timeline[]

BakenrenefTefnakhte I

Non-dynastic local rulers[]

After the waning centralised rule of the 22nd Dynasty in Lower Egypt and the 23rd Dynasty in Upper Egypt, local kinglets throughout Egypt began ruling their territories independently (much like the emerging 24th Dynasty centred at Sais).

Pharaoh of Thebes
Name Dates Comments
Menkheperre Ini IV ca. 730 BC (at least 5 years) Subjected by Piye's conquest. He may have remained in power as a local Theban governor.
Pharaoh of Lycopolis
Name Dates Comments
Padinemty Sometime between 725 and 666 BC Dated prior to the 26th Dynasty. His rule is placed between the time of Piye's conquest of Egypt and the Assyrian invasion under Esarhaddon and then Ashurbanipal in 666 BC.[1] Alternatively, Padinemty may have ruled at Hermopolis instead.[2]
Pharaoh of Hermopolis
Name Dates Comments
Nimlot ca. 725 BC Vassal of Piye who deflected towards Tefnakhte's coalision. Returned to his previous vassalage after being besieged by Piye.
Neferkheperre-Khakhau Thutemhat ca. 715 BC? Known from a statue (CG 42212) bearing his name.
Pharaoh of Heracleopolis
Name Dates Comments
Neferkare Peftjauawybastet ca. 725 BC Vassal of Piye. Tefnakhte attempted to besiege Heracleopolis, but Piye came and broke the siege.
Pharaoh of Tanis
Name Dates Comments
Shepeskare-Iryenre Gemenefkhonsubak ca. 700-680 BC Local Tanite ruler whose territories were not conquered by Piye.
Sehotep(en)ibre Padibastet III ca. 680-666 BC Local Tanite ruler around the time of the Assyrian invasion under Esarhaddon and then Ashurbanipal in 666 BC.
Pharaoh of Athribis
Name Dates Comments
Padiaset ca. 725 BC Local Athribite ruler. He is mentioned on Piye's Victory Stela as a subjected kinglet.
Bakennefi 671-668 BC Local Athribite ruler who rebelled against the Assyrians during their short-lived occupation of Egypt.
Irethor I ca. 665 BC Local Athribite ruler who rebelled against the Assyrians during their short-lived occupation of Egypt.
Pharaoh of Leontopolis
Name Dates Comments
Usermaatre-Setepenamun Iuput II ca. 738-715 BC Ally of Tefnakhte until they were defeated and conquered by Piye. Remained in power as a local governor.

References[]

  1. Leahy 1999.
  2. Kitchen 1996, p. 525.

Bibliography[]

  • Kitchen, K.A., 1996: The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 BC). Aris & Phillips Limited, Warminster.
  • Leahy, A., 1999: More Fragments of the Book of the Dead of Padinemty. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 85
Preceded by:
22nd Dynasty
Third Intermediate Period
24th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
25th Dynasty
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