Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Second Dynasty.
For the first three pharaohs, sources are fairly close in agreement and the order is supported by an inscription on the statuette of Hetepdief, who served in the mortuary cults of these three kings.
However, the identity of the following rulers is unclear. Surviving sources might be giving the Horus name or the Nebty name and the birth names of these rulers. They may also be entirely different individuals, or could be legendary names. This might never be resolved.
It has been theorised that following the reign of Nynetjer, the country was split and ruled by two successors due to the overly complex state administration of the whole of Egypt.
The following list contains various king names from different sources:
|Weneg||8 years||Listed as the fourth king of the dynasty on the Turin, Saqqara and Abydos king lists. Only attested in Lower Egypt.|
|Senedj||20 years||Listed as the fifth king of the dynasty on the Turin, Saqqara and Abydos king lists.|
|Neferkare I||Listed as the sixth king of the dynasty in the Saqqara and Turin King lists, but omitted from the Abydos King List. Only attested in later documents dated long after the time period of the Second dynasty. May have only ruled Lower Egypt.|
|Neferkasokar||8 years||Listed as the seventh king of the dynasty in the Saqqara and Turin King lists, but omitted from the Abydos King List. Only attested in later documents dated long after the time period of the Second dynasty. May have only ruled Lower Egypt.|
|"Hudjefa"||11 years||Name literally means "erased" or "missing", showing that this king's name was unknown or lost by the Nineteenth Dynasty. Listed as the eighth king of the dynasty on the Saqqara Tablet, but omitted from the Abydos King List. May have only ruled Lower Egypt.|
The following kings are known by their Horus name (or nomen) and are either identical to kings mentioned above or seperate kings of this dynasty.
|Peribsen||Name connected to Seth deity rather than the traditional Horus. Attested by contemporary inscriptions, but not on later king lists. Only attested in Upper Egypt.|
|Sekhemib||Attested by contemporary inscriptions, but not on later king lists. May be identified with Peribsen or his immediate successor.|
|Nubnefer||Nomen of a king, unknown placement. Name does not appear on any known official king lists. May be birth name of Nebre or a completely separate ephemeral king who ruled at some point following Nynetjer's reign.|
With the last ruler, the sources return to an agreement:
Although Manetho states the capital was at Thinis, the same as during the First Dynasty, at least the first three kings were buried at Saqqara, suggesting the center of power had moved to Memphis. Beyond this, little can be said about the events during this period; the annual records on the Palermo Stone only survive for the end of the reign of Raneb and for parts of Nynetjer's. One important event possibly happened during the reign of Khasekhemwy: many Egyptologists read his name ("the Two Powers are Crowned") as commemorating the union of Upper and Lower Egypts.
- Grimal 1994, p. 55.
- Wilkinson 1999, p. 88.