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Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
Predynastic Period
Protodynastic Period
Early Dynastic Period
1st 2nd
Old Kingdom
3rd 4th 5th 6th
First Intermediate Period
7th 8th 9th 10th 11th
Middle Kingdom
11th 12th
Second Intermediate Period
13th 14th 15th 16th 17th
Abydos Dynasty
New Kingdom
18th 19th 20th
Third Intermediate Period
21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th
Late Period
26th 27th 28th
29th 30th 31st
Hellenistic Period
Argead Dynasty
Ptolemaic Dynasty

The Thirtieth Dynasty (379–341 BC) followed Nectanebo I's deposition of Nayfaurud II, the son of Hagar. This dynasty is often considered part of the Late Period.

Nectanebo I had gained control of all of Egypt by November of 380 BC, but spent much of his reign defending his kingdom from Persian reconquest with the occasional help of Sparta or Athens. In 365, Nectanebo made his son Teos co-king and heir, and until his death in 363 BC father and son reigned together. After his father's death, Teos invaded the Persian territories of modern Syria and Israel and was beginning to meet with some successes when he lost his throne due the machinations of his own son Tjahapimu. Tjahapimu took advantage of Teos' unpopularity within Egypt by declaring his son (and Teos' grandson) Nectanebo II king. The Egyptian army rallied around Nectanebo II which forced Teos to flee to the court of the king of Persia.

Nectanebo II's reign was dominated by the efforts of the Persian rulers to reconquer Egypt, which they considered a satrapy in revolt. For the first ten years, Nectanebo avoided the Persian reconquest because Artaxerxes III was forced to consolidate his control of the realm. Artaxerxes then attempted an unsuccessful invasion of Egypt in the winter of 351/350 BC; the repercussions of his defeat prompted revolts in Cyprus, Phoenicia, and Cilicia. Although Nectanebo gave support to these revolts, Artaxerxes would eventually suppress these rebellions and was once again able to invade Egypt in the winter of 343 BC. This second invasion proved successful, and by the summer of 342 BC Nectanebo was forced to withdraw from his defenses in the Nile Delta to Memphis, where he saw that his cause was lost. He thereupon fled south to Upper Egypt and subsequently to Nubia, where he is assumed to found refuge at the court of King Nastesen of Napata. Nectanebo, however, may have managed to maintain some form of independent rule in the south of Egypt for 2 more years since a document from Edfu is dated to his eighteenth year.

Although a shadowy rebel Khababash proclaimed himself king (338-336 BC), Nectanebo has been considered the last native pharaoh of Egypt, and his flight marked the end of Egypt as an independent entity.

Thirtieth Dynasty
Name Dates Comments
Kheperkare Nakhtnebef 379–361 BC (18 years) Better known as Nectanebo I. Deposed and likely killed Nayfaurud II of the 29th Dynasty, starting the last dynasty of native Egyptians. Father of Djedhor.
Irimaatenre Djedhor 361–359 BC (2 years) Better known as Teos. Co-regent with his father Nectanebo I from about 365 BC. Was overthrown by Nectanebo II with the aid of Agesilaus II of Sparta.
Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt 359–341 BC (18 years) Better known as Nectanebo II. Last native ruler of a unified ancient Egypt.

Timeline[]

Nectanebo IITeosNectanebo I
Preceded by:
29th Dynasty
Late Period
30th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
31st Dynasty
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