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Achaemenid Falcon

The Achaemenid Falcon or Shahbaz, royal symbol of the Achaemenid dynasty of the ancient kingdom of Persia.

Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
Predynastic Period
Protodynastic Period
Early Dynastic Period
1st 2nd
Old Kingdom
3rd 4th 5th 6th
First Intermediate Period
7th 8th 9th 10th 11th
Middle Kingdom
11th 12th
Second Intermediate Period
13th 14th 15th 16th 17th
Abydos Dynasty
New Kingdom
18th 19th 20th
Third Intermediate Period
21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th
Late Period
26th 27th 28th
29th 30th 31st
Hellenistic Period
Argead Dynasty
Ptolemaic Dynasty

The Thirty-first Dynasty (342-332 BC) was effectively a province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire for a second time (the first being the 27th Dynasty which lasted: 525-404 BC). The 31st Dynasty was founded by Artaxerxes III, the King of Persia, after his reconquest of Egypt and subsequent crowning as Pharaoh of Egypt, and was disestablished upon the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great (which also marked the end of the Late Period and start of the Hellenistic Period).

Thirty-first Dynasty
Name Dates Comments
Artaxerxes III Ochus 342–338 BC (4 years) Egypt came under Persian rule for the second time.
Artaxerxes IV Arses 338–336 BC (2 years) Only reigned in Lower Egypt.
Darius III 336–332 BC (4 years) Upper Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BC. The Persian Empire was conquered by Alexander the Great in 332 BC.
Native Rebel Kings
Name Dates Comments
Senentatanen-Setepenptah Khababash 338–335 BC (3 years) Rebel pharaoh who led an invasion from Nubia, conquered and ruled over Upper Egypt.


KhababashDarius IIIArtaxerxes IVArtaxerxes III


Preceded by:
30th Dynasty
Late Period
31st Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Argead Dynasty