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Preceded by:
Amenhotep III
Pharaoh of Egypt
18th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Smenkhkare and
Neferneferuaten
Akhenaten
Formerly: Amenhotep IV
Hellenized: Amenophis
Manetho: Chenchres
Akkadian Cuneiform: Napḫurureya
Akhenaten

Statue of Akhenaten from the Egyptian Museum, Cairo.

Reign
1351-1334 BC or
1341-1324 BC (17 years)
Praenomen
M23
t
L2
t
<
ranfrL1Z3raT21
n
>
Neferkheperure-Waenre
Beautiful are the
Manifestations of Re,
Unique One of Re
Nomen
G39N5
<
it
n
ra
G25Aa1
n
>
Akhenaten
Living Spirit of the Aten/
Effective for the Aten
Horus name
G5
it
n
ra
N36
Srxtail2
Kanakhte-Meryaten
Strong Bull, Beloved of the Aten
Nebty name
G16wr
r
M23tiiAa13
N27
t
O1
it
n
ra
Wernesutemakhetaten
Great of Kingship in Akhetaten
Golden Horus
G8U39r
n
V10
n
it
n
ra
Wetjesrenenaten
He Who Elevated the Name of
the Aten
Legacy
Father Amenhotep III
Mother Tiye
Consort(s) Nefertiti, Kiya,
Tadu-Ḫepa (=Kiya?),[1]
The Younger Lady (?),
Meritaten (?), Meketaten (?)
Ankhesenpaaten (?)
Issue Meritaten, Meketaten,
Ankhesenpaaten,
Neferneferuaten-Tasherit,
Neferneferure, Setepenre,
Tutankhamun (?),
Ankhesenpaaten-Tasherit (?),
Meritaten-Tasherit (?)
Burial AT26 (initial), KV55 (reburial?)
Monuments Amarna

Neferkheperure-Waenre Akhenaten (ancient Egyptian: ꜣḫ-n-ỉtn, "Effective for the Aten"), known as Amenhotep IV (ancient Egyptian: ỉmn-ḥtp, "Amun is Pleased", Hellenized Amenophis) prior to Year 5 of his reign, was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty during the New Kingdom. Suggested dates for Akhenaten's reign are from 1353 to 1336 B.C.E. or from 1351 to 1334 B.C.E.[2] An alternative Egyptian chronology places his reign ten years later in time from 1343 to 1326 B.C.E. or from 1341 to 1324 B.C.E. Akhenaten's reign is especially notable for his single-handed restructuring the Egyptian religion to monotheistic worship of the Aten.

He was born to Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye. Akhenaten was not originally designated as the successor to the throne until the untimely death of his older brother, Crown Prince Thutmose. Amenhotep IV succeeded his father after Amenhotep III's death at the end of his 38-year reign, possibly after a coregency lasting between either 1 to 2 or 12 years. Akhenaten's chief wife was Nefertiti, who has been made famous by her exquisitely painted bust in the Altes Museum of Berlin. If an age around 35-45 years at death for the KV55 mummy is accepted, it would almost certainly be his and in that case he fathered Tutankhamun with his sister during his reign.

Name[]

In Year 5 of his reign Akhenaten changed his nomen as well his Royal Titulary to match his religious reforms to Atenism. Only his throne name (or prenomen) was not changed as it was probably deemed fitting for both the traditional and reformed religion. In the Amarna letters, he is referred to by his throne name, which is generally written as Napḫurureya in cuneiform.

Throne name
M23
t
L2
t
<
ranfrL1Z3raT21
n
>
Neferkheperure-Waenre
Beautiful are the
Manifestations of Re, Unique One of Re

Nomen
Prior to Year 5
G39N5
<
imn
n
R4
t p
R8S38R19
>
Amenhotep-Netjerheqawaset
Amun is Pleased/Satisfied, Divine Ruler of Thebes
After Year 5
G39N5
<
it
n
ra
G25Aa1
n
>
Akhenaten
Living Spirit of the Aten / Effective for the Aten

Horus name
Prior to Year 5
G5E1
D40
N29A28S9O33
Kanakhte-Kaishuti
Strong Bull, High of Plumes
After Year 5
G5it
n
ra
N36O33
Kanakhte-Meryaten
Strong Bull, Beloved of the Aten

Nebty name
Prior to Year 5
G16wr
r
M23t
n
iimit
p
Q1tZ3
Wernesutemopetsut
Great of kingship at Karnak
After Year 5
G16wr
r
M23tiiAa13
N27
t
O1
it
n
ra
Wernesutemakhetaten
Great of Kingship at Akhetaten

Golden Horus
Prior to Year 5
G8U39Y1N28
Z2
mO28W24O49M27
Wetjeskhauemiunushemay
Elevated of Appearances in Southern Heliopolis
After Year 5
G8U39r
n
V10
n
it
n
ra
Wetjesrenenaten
He Who Elevated the Name of the Aten

Family[]

See also: 18th Dynasty Family Tree.

The future Akhenaten was born Amenhotep, a younger son of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and his principal wife Tiye. Akhenaten had an elder brother, Crown Prince Thutmose, who was recognized as Amenhotep III's heir. Akhenaten also had four to six sisters: Sitamun, Henuttaneb, Iset, Nebetah, and possibly Baketaten and Nebetnehat.

Akhenaten was married to Nefertiti, his Great Royal Wife. The exact timing of their marriage is unknown, but inscriptions from the pharaoh's building projects suggest that they married either shortly before or after Akhenaten took the throne.[3] The couple had six known daughters; Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten, Neferneferuaten-Tasherit, Neferneferure, and Setepenre.

A secondary wife of Akhenaten named Kiya is also known from inscriptions. Some Egyptologists have theorized that she gained her importance as the mother of Tutankhaten, who is often considered the son of Akhenaten. William Murnane proposes that Kiya is the colloquial name of the Mitannian princess Tadu-Ḫepa, daughter of the king Tušratta of Mitanni, who had married Amenhotep III before becoming the wife of Akhenaten.

Issue[]

Prior to Accession[]

Egyptologists know very little about Akhenaten's life as prince Amenhotep. Donald B. Redford dates his birth before his father Amenhotep III's 25th regnal year, based on the birth of Akhenaten's first daughter, who was likely born fairly early in his own reign. The only mention of his name, as "the King's Son Amenhotep," was found on a wine docket at Amenhotep III's Malkata palace, where some historians suggested Akhenaten was born. Others contend that he was born at Memphis, where growing up he was influenced by the worship of the sun god Ra practiced at nearby Heliopolis. Redford and James K. Hoffmeier state, however, that Ra's cult was so widespread and established throughout Egypt that Akhenaten could have been influenced by solar worship even if he did not grow up around Heliopolis.

Some historians have tried to determine Akhenaten's tutor during his youth, and have proposed noblemen such as Heqareshu, Meryre II, or the Vizier Aperia. The only person we know for certain served the prince was Parennefer, whose tomb mentions this fact.

Egyptologist Cyril Aldred suggests that prince Amenhotep might have been a High Priest of Ptah in Memphis, although no evidence supporting this had been found. It is known that Amenhotep's brother, Crown Prince Thutmose, served in this role before he died. Thutmose's early death, perhaps around Amenhotep III's thirtieth regnal year, meant that Akhenaten was next in line for Egypt's throne.[4] If Amenhotep inherited all his brother's roles in preparation for his accession to the throne, he might have become a high priest in Thutmose's stead. Aldred proposes that Akhenaten's unusual artistic inclinations might have been formed during his time serving Ptah, the patron god of craftsmen, whose high priest were sometimes referred to as "The Greatest of the Directors of Craftsmanship".

Coregency[]

There is much controversy around whether Amenhotep IV succeeded to the throne on the death of his father, Amenhotep III, or whether there was a coregency (lasting as long as 12 years according to some Egyptologists). Current literature by Eric Cline, Nicholas Reeves, Peter Dorman and other scholars comes out strongly against the establishment of a long coregency between the 2 rulers and in favour of either no coregency or a brief one lasting 1 to 2 years, at the most.

Religious Reformation[]

Main article: Atenism

Aten disk

Pharaoh Akhenaten and his family adoring the Aten

This religious reformation appears to have begun with his decision to celebrate a Sed Festival in his third regnal year — a highly unusual step, since a Sed-festival, a sort of royal jubilee intended to reinforce the Pharaoh's divine powers of kingship, was traditionally held in the thirtieth year of a Pharaoh's reign and thereafter repeated every three years.

Year 5 marked the beginning of his construction of a new capital, Akhetaten ('Horizon of Aten'), at the site known today as Amarna. In the same year, Amenhotep IV officially changed his name to Akhenaten ('Effective Spirit of Aten') as evidence of his new worship. Very soon afterward he centralized Egyptian religious practices in Akhetaten, though construction of the city seems to have continued for several more years. In honor of Aten, Akhenaten also oversaw the construction of some of the most massive temple complexes in ancient Egypt, including one at Karnak, close to the old temple of Amun. In these new temples, Aten was worshipped in the open sunlight, rather than in dark temple enclosures, as had been the previous custom. Akhenaten is also believed to have composed the Great Hymn to the Aten.

Initially, Akhenaten presented Aten as a variant of the familiar supreme deity Amun-Ra (itself the result of an earlier rise to prominence of the cult of Amun, resulting in Amun becoming merged with the sun god Ra), in an attempt to put his ideas in a familiar Egyptian religious context. However, by Year 9 of his reign Akhenaten declared that Aten was not merely the supreme god, but the only god, and that he, Akhenaten, was the only intermediary between Aten and his people. He ordered the defacing of Amun's temples throughout Egypt, and in a number of instances inscriptions of the plural 'gods' were also removed.

Aten's name is also written differently after Year 9, to emphasise the radicalism of the new regime, which included a ban on idols, with the exception of a rayed solar disc, in which the rays (commonly depicted ending in hands) appear to represent the unseen spirit of Aten, who by then was evidently considered not merely a sun god, but rather a universal deity. It is important to note, however, that representations of the Aten were always accompanied with a sort of "hieroglyphic footnote", stating that the representation of the sun as All-encompassing Creator was to be taken as just that: a representation of something that, by its very nature as something transcending creation, cannot be fully or adequately represented by any one part of that creation.

Artistic Depictions[]

Styles of art that flourished during this short period are markedly different from other Egyptian art, bearing a variety of affectations, from elongated heads to protruding stomachs, exaggerated ugliness and the beauty of Nefertiti. Significantly, and for the only time in the history of Egyptian royal art, Akhenaten's family was depicted in a decidedly naturalistic manner, and they are clearly shown displaying affection for each other. Nefertiti also appears beside the king in actions usually reserved for a Pharaoh, suggesting that she attained unusual power for a queen. Artistic representations of Akhenaten give him a strikingly bizarre appearance, with slender limbs, a protruding belly and wide hips, giving rise to controversial theories such as that he may have actually been a woman masquerading as a man, or that he was a hermaphrodite or had some other intersex condition. The fact that Akhenaten had several children argues against these suggestions. It has also been suggested that he suffered from Marfan's syndrome.

Until Akhenaten's mummy is located and identified, proposals of actual physical abnormalities are likely to remain speculative. However, it must be kept in mind that there is no good evidence that we are necessarily dealing with a literal representation of Akhenaten's physical form, or that of his wife or children. As pharaoh, Akhenaten had complete control over how he, his family, and his government in general was represented in art. Rather than a literal representation of his physical appearance, it must be kept in mind that what we see as an odd physical abnormality was the way that Akhenaten wanted to be artistically portrayed.

Following Akenaten's death, a peaceful but comprehensive political, religious and artistic reformation returned Egyptian life to the norms it had followed previously during his father's reign. Much of the art and building infrastructure that was created during Akhenaten's reign was defaced or destroyed in the period immediately following his death. Stone building blocks from his construction projects were later used as foundation stones for subsequent rulers temples and tombs.

Foreign Policy[]

Crucial evidence about Akhenaten's foreign policy has been provided by the discovery of the Amarna Letters, a cache of diplomatic correspondence discovered in modern times at el-Amarna, the modern designation of the Akhetaten site. This correspondence comprises a priceless collection of incoming messages on clay tablets, sent to Akhetaten from imperial outposts and foreign allies. The letters suggest that Akhenaten's neglect of matters of state were causing disorder across the massive Egyptian empire. The governors and kings of subject domains wrote to beg for gold, and also complained of being snubbed and cheated.

Early on in his reign, Akhenaten fell out with the king of Mitanni, Tušratta. He may even have concluded an alliance with the Hittites, who then attacked Mitanni and attempted to carve out their own empire. A group of Egypt's other allies who attempted to rebel against the Hittites were captured, and wrote begging Akhenaten for troops; he evidently did not respond to their pleas. Evidence suggests that the troubles on the northern frontier led to difficulties in Canaan, particularly in a struggle for power between Labaya of Shechem and Abdi-Kheba of Jerusalem, requiring the Pharaoh to intervene in the area by dispatching Medjay troops northwards. There is some evidence that the spread of plague throughout the Middle East at this time was precipitated by this action.

Plague and pandemic[]

The Amarna period is also associated with a serious outbreak of a pandemic, possibly the plague, or perhaps the world's first outbreak of influenza, which came from Egypt and spread throughout the Middle East, killing Šuppiluliuma I, the Hittite King. The prevalence of disease may help explain the rapidity with which the site of Akhetaten was subsequently abandoned. It may also explain why later generations considered the gods to have turned against the Amarna monarchs.

Burial and Succession[]

1024px-Sarcophage Akhénaton

Pink granite sarcophagus of Akhenaten from AT26.

Akhenaten died in Year 17 and appears to have been buried in his prepared AT26 rock-cut tomb, located in the Amarna Royal Wadi on the east bank of the Nile at Amarna. The construction of tombs on the east side (sunrise) rather than on the west side (sunset) of the Nile was uncommon and part of the Atenist revolution. His original pink granite sarcophagus was destroyed and found in pieces in AT26, but has since been reconstructed and now sits outside in the Cairo Museum. Akhenaten was briefly succeeded by Smenkhkare and/or Neferneferuaten, before Tutankhaten (later, Tutankhamun) ascended on the throne.

Akhenaten was probably removed from his tomb after the court returned to Thebes, and reburied in the KV55 rock-cut tomb in the Valley of the Kings. The tomb itself is a mystery, as the door bears the name Tutankhamun, the shrine bears hieroglyphs stating it was made for Queen Tiye, and the sarcophagus indicates that it was designed for Akhenaten's second wife Kiya, four cardinal bricks bearing the name of Akhenaten. The tomb might have served as a cache to which royal mummies from Amarna were relocated.

Mummy[]

Main article: KV55 Mummy

KV55Coffin

The desecrated coffin from KV55.

A single gilded coffin was found in the KV55 tomb. It was originally made for a woman and only later adapted to accommodate a king, through alterations to its inscriptions and the addition of a false beard, a uraeus and the royal scepters (crook and flail).[5] It is also recognized that the four canopic jars discovered near the coffin belonged to Akhenaten's secondary wife Kiya, and that the female heads on the stoppers of the jars portray her. Like the coffin, the canopic jars were altered for the burial of a king through the erasure of Kiya's titulary and the addition of a royal uraeus to each portrait head. It is now widely accepted that the coffin was originally intended for Kiya.[5]

All personal names inscribed on the coffin and the canopic jars were excised in antiquity, rendering the identity of the human remains inside the coffin a matter of long debate. Over the past century, the candidates for this unknown Amarna Pharaoh have been either Akhenaten or Smenkhkare.[5][6][7]

KV55Skull

Skull of the skeletonized KV55 Mummy.

Evidence that the occupant of the coffin was Akhenaten is provided by the four magical bricks found inside the tomb. Whereas the age determination of the skeletonized mummy itself leads to suggest a young age at death and argues against such an identification,[8] favoring Smenkhkare as its identity despite that fact that his name is not attested in the tomb.

Further supporting an identification with Smenkhkare; the KV55 mummy does not seem to be the father of the female mummy KV21a. The latter has been identified as the probable mother of the two foetuses found in Tutankhamun's tomb, thus making an identification with Ankhesenamun likely, the known daughter of Akhenaten and the only known wife of Tutankhamun.

In March 2021, the results of a new forensic facial reconstruction of the KV55 mummy were released.[9]

Aftermath[]

With Akhenaten's death, the Aten cult he had founded gradually fell out of favor. Tutankhaten changed his name to Tutankhamun in Year 2 of his reign and abandoned the city of Akhetaten, which eventually fell into ruin. His successors Ay and Horemheb disassembled temples Akhenaten had built, including the temple at Thebes, using them as a source of easily available building materials and decorations for their own temples.

Finally, Akhenaten, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamun, and Ay were excised from the official lists of Pharaohs, which instead reported that Amenhotep III was immediately succeeded by Horemheb. This is thought to be part of an attempt by Horemheb to delete all trace of Atenism and the pharaohs associated with it from the historical record. Akhenaten's name never appeared on any of the king lists compiled by later Pharaohs and it was not until the late 19th century that his identity was re-discovered and the surviving traces of his reign were unearthed by archaeologists.

Speculative theories[]

Akhenaten's status as a religious revolutionary has led to much speculation, ranging from the mainstream to New Age esotericism. He has been called "the first individual in history", as well as the first monotheist, first scientist, and first romantic.[10] As early as 1899 Flinders Petrie gushingly declared that,

If this were a new religion, invented to satisfy our modern scientific conceptions, we could not find a flaw in the correctness of this view of the energy of the solar system. How much Akhenaten understood, we cannot say, but he certainly bounded forward in his views and symbolism to a position which we cannot logically improve upon at the present day. Not a rag of superstition or of falsity can be found clinging to this new worship evolved out of the old Aton of Heliopolis, the sole Lord of the universe.[11]

H. R. Hall even claimed that the pharaoh was the "first example of the scientific mind".[12]

The idea of Akhenaten as the pioneer of a monotheistic religion that later became Judaism was promoted by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, in his book Moses and Monotheism and thereby entered popular consciousness. Freud argued that Moses had been an Atenist priest forced to leave Egypt with his followers after Akhenaten's death.

In vivid contrast, the pro-Nazi Aryanist writer Savitri Devi insisted in her book The Lightning and the Sun that Akenaten's god bore no resemblance to

the jealous tribal god Jehovah, created in the image of the Jews, — but the equivalent of the immanent, impersonal Tat — That — of the Chandogya Upanishad, no less than of das Gott (as opposed to "der Gott") of the ancient Germans, and the one conception of Divinity that modern science, far from disproving, on the contrary, suggests.[13]

More recently, Ahmed Osman has claimed that that Moses and Akhenaten were the same individual. While these speculative views have gained acceptance in some quarters (e.g. Laurence Gardner, Bloodline of the Holy Grail, Lost Secrets of the Sacred Ark; Gary Greenberg, The Moses Mystery: The African Origins of the Jewish People), most mainstream Egyptologists do not take them seriously, pointing out that there are direct connections between early Judaism and other Semitic religious traditions, and that two of the three principal Judaic terms for God, Yahweh and Elohim, have no connection to Aten. Additionally, Akhenaten appears in history almost two-centuries before the first archaeological and written evidence for Judaism and Israelite culture is found in the Levant. Furthermore abundant visual imagery was central to Atenism, which celebrated the natural world, while such imagery is not a feature of Israelite culture. Osman also claimed that Akhenaten's maternal grandfather Yuya was the same person as the Biblical Joseph. Egyptologists reject this view because Yuya had strong connections to the city of Akhmin in Upper Egypt, which is indicated in his title "Overseer of the Cattle of Min at Akhmin.[1] Hence, he most likely belonged to the regional nobility of Akhmim. This makes it very unlikely that he was an Israelite, as most Asiatic settlers tended to cloister around the Nile delta region of Lower Egypt.[citation needed] Some Egyptologists, however, give him a Mitannian origin. It is widely accepted that there are strong similarities between Akhenaten's Great Hymn to the Aten and the Biblical Psalm 104, though whether this implies a direct influence or a common literary convention remains in dispute.

Another claim was made by Immanuel Velikovsky[14]. Velikovsky argued that Moses was neither Akhenaten, nor one of his followers. Instead, Velikovsky identifies Akhenaten as the history behind Oedipus and moved the setting from the Greek Thebes to the Egyptian Thebes. His theory also includes that Akhenaten had an incestous relationship with his mother, Tiy. Velikovsky also posited that Akhenaten had elephantiasis, producing enlarged legs – Oedipus being Greek for "swollen feet." As part of his argument, Velikovsky uses the fact that Akhenaten viciously carried out a campaign to erase the name of his father, which he argues could have developed into Oedipus killing his father.

See also[]

References[]

  1. EA 27 1-5, EA28 2-4, 8-9, and EA29 1-3, where king Tušratta of Mitanni calls Akhenaten his son-in-law and hopes that all is well with "Tadu-Ḫepa, my daughter, your wife".
  2. Von Beckerath 1997, p. 190.
  3. Tyldesley 2005.
  4. Dodson 2018, p. 6.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Davis 1990.
  6. Aldred 1988, p. 205.
  7. Gabolde 2009, figs. 2-6.
  8. Strouhal 2010.
  9. Galassi et al. 2021, link.
  10. Discussions of such Akenatenolatry can be found on Akhenaten, Deep Thought
  11. Sir Flinders Petrie, History of Egypt (edit. 1899), Vol. II, p. 214.
  12. H. R. Hall, Ancient History of the Near East, p. 599.
  13. Savitri Devi, The Lightening and the Sun, p. 142
  14. Immanuel Velikovsky, Oedipus and Akhnaton, Myth and History, Doubleday, 1960

Bibliography[]

  • Aldred, C., 1988: Akhenaten: King of Egypt. Thames & Hudson, London.
  • Beckerath, J. von, 1997: Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten: Die Zeitbestimmung der ägyptischen Geschichte von der Vorzeit bis 332 v. Chr. Münchner Ägyptologische Studien, Vol. 46. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz.
  • Davis, T.M., 1990: The Tomb of Queen Tiyi. KMT Communications.
  • Dodson, A., 2018: Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian Counter-Reformation. (Revised 2018 ed. of 2009 original). Cairo; New York: The American University in Cairo Press.
  • Gabolde, M., 2009: Under a Deep Blue Starry Sky. Causing His Name to Live: Studies in Egyptian Epigraphy and History in Memory of William J. Murnane.
  • Strouhal, E., 2010: Biological Age of Skeletonized Mummy from Tomb KV 55 at Thebes. Anthropologie (1962-), Vol. 48 (2).
  • Tyldesley, J., 2005: Egypt: How a Lost Civilisation was Rediscovered. Berkeley, University of California Press.
  • Savitri Devi, A Son of God (full text) (Philosophical Publishing House [London], 1946); subsequent editions published as Son of the Sun: The Life and Philosophy of Akhnaton, King of Egypt (Supreme Grand Lodge of A.M.O.R.C., 1956); part III of The Lightning and the Sun is focused on Akhnaten.
  • Immanuel Velikovsky, Oedipus and Akhnaton: Myth and History (Doubleday [Garden City, New York], 1960, ISBN 0-385-00529-6)
  • Donald B. Redford, Akhenaten: The Heretic King (Princeton University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-691-03567-9)
  • Mubabinge Bilolo, Le Créateur et la Création dans la pensée memphite et amarnienne. Approche synoptique du Document Philosophique de Memphis et du Grand Hymne Théologique d'Echnaton (Academy of African Thought, Sect. I, vol. 2; Kinshasa-Munich 1988; new ed., Munich-Paris, 2004)
  • David O'Connor & Eric Cline, Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign, (University of Michigan Press, 1998, ISBN 0-472-10742-9)
  • Graham Phillips, Act of God: Moses, Tutankhamun and the Myth of Atlantis, (London : Sidgwick & Jackson, 1998, ISBN 0-283-06314-9); republished as Atlantis and the Ten Plagues of Egypt: The Secret History Hidden in the Valley of the Kings (Bear & Co., 2003, paperback, ISBN 1-59143-009-7)
  • Erik Hornung, Akhenaten and the Religion of Light, translated by David Lorton (Cornell University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8014-3658-3)
  • Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Pharaohs of the Sun: Akhenaten - Nefertiti - Tutankhamen, edited by Rita E. Freed, Yvonne J. Markowitz, and Sue H. D'Auria (Bulfinch Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8212-2620-7)
  • Dominic Montserrat, Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and ancient Egypt, (Routledge, 2000, ISBN 0-415-30186-6)
  • Tom Holland, The Sleeper in the Sands (novel), (Abacus, 1998 in literature, ISBN 0-349-11223-1), a fictionalised adventure story based closely on the mysteries of Akhenaten's reign
  • Nicholas Reeves, Akhenaten: Egypt's False Prophet (Thames and Hudson, 2001,ISBN 0-500-05106-2)

External links[]

Predecessor:
Amenhotep III
Pharaoh of Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty
Successor:
Smenkhkare and
Neferneferuaten
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