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Drawing of the Lighthouse of Alexandria by archaeologist Hermann Thiersch (1909).©

Location Alexandria
Coordinates 31°11′51″N 29°53′33″E
Region Lower Egypt
Nome Amentet
Founder Alexander the Great
Founded c. 331 BC
Main deities Serapis, Poseidon, Hephaestus
Monuments Pharos, Great Library,
Pompey's Pillar, Serapeum,

Alexandria (Greek: Ἀλεξάνδρεια) is an Ancient Egyptian city in Lower Egypt, located west of the Nile Delta between the Mediterranean Sea and Lake Mareotis.

Founded in c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great, Alexandria grew rapidly and became a major centre of Hellenic civilisation, eventually replacing Memphis, in present-day Greater Cairo, as Egypt's capital. During the Hellenistic Period, it was home to the Lighthouse of Alexandria that ranked among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, as well as the storied Library of Alexandria.


A small Egyptian fishing village named Rhacotis (Greek: Ρακώτις), or Raqedit (transliteration: rꜥ-qdy.t, 'That which is built up') in ancient Egyptian, existed since the 13th century BC in the vicinity and was eventually absorbed into Alexandria, becoming the city's Egyptian quarter.

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