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Preceded by:
Psusennes I
Pharaoh of Egypt
21st Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Osorkon
Amenemopet
Manetho: Amenophthis
Amenemopet

Golden funerary mask of Amenemopet.©

Reign
1001-992 BC (9 years)
Praenomen
M23
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Usermaatre-Setepenamun
"Powerful Justice of Re,
Chosen of Amun"
Nomen
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Amenemopet
"Amun is at the Opet festival"
Legacy
Father Psusennes I
Mother Mutnedjmet
Died 992 BC
Burial Tanis, NRT IV (originally),
NRT III (reburial)
For other pages by this name, see Amenemopet.

Usermaatre-Setepenamun Amenemopet (transliteration: ỉmn-m-ỉpt, meaning: "Amun is at the Opet festival"), was the fourth Pharaoh of the Twenty-first Dynasty during the Third Intermediate Period.

Family[]

See also: 21st Dynasty Family Tree.

Amenemopet was probably a son of the Pharaoh Psusennes I and Queen Mutnedjmet. In this case, he had an older brother named Ankhefenmut, who predeceased their father, and a half-sister called Isetemakhbit. Neither children nor wives are known for Amenemopet.

Dates and Length of Reign[]

All versions of Manetho's Epitome reports that Amenophthis (Amenemopet's Hellenised name) enjoyed 9 years of reign, a duration more or less confirmed by archaeological sources.[1] His name appears in a Book of the Dead of the Theban burial of the "Captain of the barque of Amun", Pennestawy, dating to Amenemopet's Year 5.[2]

Coregency with Psusennes I[]

Amenemopet succeeded his purported father's long reign after a period of coregency.[3] During his last regnal years, Psusennes may have ended up unfit to rule due to his advanced age and illnesses requiring his son to rule for him as coregent. This coregency has been deduced thanks to a linen bandage mentioning a "... king Amenemope, Year 49..." which has been reconstructed as "[Year X under] king Amenemope, Year 49 [under king Psusennes I]".[4] It has been suggested, however, that this Year 49 may belong to the High Priest of Amun Menkheperre instead of Psusennes I, thus ruling out the coregency;[5] this hypothesis has been rejected by Kenneth Kitchen, who still supports a coregency.[6] Kitchen refers to the existence of Papyrus Brooklyn 16.205, a document mentioning a Year 49 followed by a Year 4, once thought to refer to Shoshenq III and Pami, but more recently to Psusennes I and Amenemopet, and thus issued in regnal Year 4 of the latter.[7]

Policy and Attestations[]

During his reign as Pharaoh, Amenemopet claimed the title of "High Priest of Amun in Tanis" as Psusennes also did before him. Amenemopet's authority was fully recognized at Thebes – at this time governed by the High Priest of Amun Smendes II and then by his brother Pinedjem II[8] – as his name appears on funerary goods of at least nine Theban burials.[2]

Apart from his Tanite tomb and the aforementioned Theban burials, Amemenopet is a poorly attested ruler. He continued with the decoration of the chapel of Isis "Mistress of the Pyramids at Giza" and made an addition to one of the temples in Memphis.[2]

Burial and Succession[]

Amenemopet was intially buried in his own NRT IV single-chambered tomb at Tanis. He was succeeded on the throne by the seemingly unrelated Osorkon. Early during the reign of Siamun, Amenemopet was moved and reburied in NRT III, inside the chamber once belonging to his purported mother Mutnedjmet and just next to his father Psusennes I.[2][9]

His undisturbed tomb was discovered by French Egyptologists Pierre Montet and Georges Goyon in April 1940, just a month before the Nazi invasion of France. Montet had to stop his excavation until the end of World War II, then resumed it in 1946 and later published his findings in 1958.

Mummy[]

According to the analysis of his skeleton performed by Dr. Douglas Derry, Amenemopet was a strongly-built man who reached a fairly advanced age.[10] It seems that the king suffered a skull infection which likely developed into meningitis and led to his death.[11]

References[]

  1. Kitchen 1996, §§ 3-4; 3.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Kitchen 1996, p. 229.
  3. Kitchen 1996, p. 431-433.
  4. Jansen-Winkeln 2006, p. 227.
  5. Jansen-Winkeln 2006, p. 230, n. 70.
  6. Kitchen 1996.
  7. Kitchen 1996, p. 83.
  8. Kitchen 1996, p. 388-389.
  9. Goyon 1987, p. 87, 163.
  10. Derry 1942, p. 149.
  11. Goyon 1987, p. 164.

Bibliography[]

  • Derry, D.E., 1942: Report on Skeleton of King Amenemopet. ASAE, Vol. 41.
  • Goyon, G., 1987: La Découverte des trésors de Tanis. Perséa.
  • Jansen-Winkeln, K., 2006: Relative Chronology of Dyn. 21. In: Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss, and David A. Warburton (eds.), Ancient Egyptian Chronology. Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 1: The Near and Middle East, Vol. 83.
  • Kitchen, K.A., 1996: The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100-650 BC). 3rd ed. Aris & Phillips, Warminster.
Predecessor:
Psusennes I
Pharaoh of Egypt
21st Dynasty
Successor:
Osorkon
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