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Preceded by:
Qareh[1]
Pharaoh of Egypt
14th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Sheshi[1]
Ammu
Reign
1760-1745 BC (ca. 15 years)[1]
or after 1650 BC[2]
Praenomen
R8F35
raaA
a
Htp
Aahotepre
Re is Greatly Pleased
Nomen
G39ra
an
n
n
Ammu
Legacy
Burial Unknown

Aahotepre Ammu (transliteration: Ꜥmw) was an ancient Egyptian Pharaoh of the Fourteenth Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. He was of Canaanite origin and ruled from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta in Lower Egypt.

Name[]

There is no direct evidence that Ammu's throne name was Aahotepre as they don't appear together. The connection between the names has been proposed by Kim Ryholt and is based on similarities between the stylistic features of their scarab seals.[1] However, in his studies of the scarabs, William Ayres Ward attributes Khauserre to Ammu instead.[3] Daphna Ben-Tor raises caution on such identifications, pointing out that the seals of the several rulers living during this period are too similar to make such correlations on the basis of mere design features.[4]

Chronological Position[]

Egyptologists Jürgen von Beckerath and Thomas Schneider place Ammu in the 16th Dynasty as a vassal of the Hyksos.[5][6] Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker view Ammu as the third ruler of the 14th Dynasty.[7][8] Ryholt bases this on his seriation of the different scarab-type groups, which inverts that of William Ayres Ward,[9] and by dating them using the high chronology of the Middle Bronze Age phases in Palestine. However, Daphna Ben-Tor points out that this chronology is "highly controversial" and "can no longer be accepted".[10] The stylistic features of the scarab seals are usually attributed to the Hyksos period,[9] and their archaeological context is currently dated to the 15th Dynasty of the Hyksos.[11][10] As a result, Ammu was likely either a Hyksos king of the 15th Dynasty or one of their minor vassal rulers in the Nile Delta.[2] In case of the latter, he may still be considered a ruler of the 14th Dynasty, which would then have coexisted with the 15th Dynasty.

Attestations[]

Ammu does not appear in the Turin King List. Ryholt proposes that a lacuna in the list was attested as wsf ("lost"), indicating a lacuna in the document from which the list was copied, and attributes five kings to it, including Ammu.[12]

Assuming that Ryholt is right in identifying Aahotepre as his throne name, Ammu is attested by 61 scarab seals (31 naming Aahotepre and 30 naming Ammu).[13] Based on that, Ryholt estimated a reign length of around 15 years for him.[7]

In 1933 a seal scarab bearing Ammu's nomen was discovered by Flinders Petrie in Tell el-Ajjul,[14] indicating trade relations with Canaan.

References[]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Ryholt 1997.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Ben-Tor et al. 1999, p. 47-73.
  3. Ward 1984, p. 163.
  4. Ben-Tor 2010, p. 99.
  5. Von Beckerath 1999.
  6. Schneider 2002, p. 226.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Ryholt 1997, p. 200.
  8. Baker 2008, p. 303.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Ward 1984.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Ben-Tor et al. 1999, p. 58.
  11. Bietak 1991, p. 52-53.
  12. Ryholt 1997, p. 10–11.
  13. Ryholt 1997, p. 199.
  14. Flinders Petrie 1933.

Bibliography[]

  • Baker, D.D., 2008: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC. Stacey International.
  • Beckerath, J. von, 1999: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen. Münchner ägyptologische Studien, Heft 49. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz.
  • Ben-Tor, D./Allen S.J./Allen J.P., 1999: Seals and Kings. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR) 315.
  • Ben-Tor, D., 2010: Sequences and chronology of Second Intermediate Period royal-name scarabs, based on excavated series from Egypt and the Levant. In: Marcel Marée (ed.). The Second Intermediate Period (Thirteenth–Seventeenth Dynasties): Current Research, Future Prospects. Orientalia Lovaniensa Analecta. Vol. 192. Peeters, Leuven.
  • Bietak, M., 1991: Egypt and Canaan During the Middle Bronze Age. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR) 281.
  • Flinders Petrie, W.M., 1933: Ancient Gaza Chapter III: Scarabs Tell El Ajjul. London.
  • Ryholt, K., 1997: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C. Museum Tuscalanum Press.
  • Schneider, T., 2002: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf.
  • Ward, W.A. 1984: Royal-Name Scarabs. In: O. Tufnell, Scarab Seals and their Contribution to History in the Early Second Millennium B.C. Studies on Scarab Seals, Vol. 2. Aris & Phillips, Warminster.
Predecessor:
Qareh
Pharaoh of Egypt
14th Dynasty
Successor:
Sheshi
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