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Preceded by:
Ineb…
Pharaoh of Egypt
14th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Hab
Apepi
Reign
Between 1693 and 1650 BC
(unknown reign length)[1]
Nomen
<
iA2pHASH
>
Ip…
Legacy
Burial Unknown
Not to be confused with Apepi (greater).

Apepi (transliteration: ỉppỉ, meaning: "One of Apep") was an ancient Egyptian Pharaoh of the Fourteenth Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. He was of Canaanite origin and ruled from Avaris over the eastern and possibly western Nile Delta in Lower Egypt, some time during the first half of the 17th century BC.[2]

Attestations[]

His nomen is partially preserved in the Turin King List as Ip… (Col 9. Line 16 as per Gardiner).[3] Ryholt argues that it may be restored to Apepi.[1] His reign length has not been preserved.

There are also five scarab-seals inscribed with "King's Son Apophis". Based on their stylistic features, Kim Ryholt suggests that they regard two different princes:[4]

  • The first three scarab seals may be confidently catagorized under William Ayres Ward's scarab-type group 2, which includes King Sheshi.[5] Ryholt refers to this individual as "Apophis A", who he sees as possibly a son of Sheshi or a close successor.[6] Thereby perhaps allowing a potential identification with King Apepi of the 14th Dynasty. However, Ward and Ben-Tor date this scarab-type group to the Hyksos period.[5][7] In their seriation of the scarab-seals, this prince Apophis would most likely be identical to the Hyksos ruler Apepi.
  • The remaining two scarabs inscribed with "King's Son Apophis" are catagorized under William Ayres Ward's scarab-type group 4,[5] for which there is consensus on a dating to the late 15th Dynasty of the Hyksos. Hence, this second prince Apophis – dubbed "Apophis B" by Ryholt – is almost certainly the Hyksos ruler of the same name[4] or his son.
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References[]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ryholt 1997.
  2. Ryholt 1997, p. 409.
  3. Gardiner 1987.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ryholt 2018, p. 259.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Ward 1984.
  6. Ryholt 2018, p. 260.
  7. Ben-Tor et al. 1999, p. 58.

Bibliography[]

  • Gardiner, A., 1987: The Royal Canon of Turin. Griffith Institute, Oxford.
  • Ryholt, K., 1997: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c. 1800-1550 B.C. Museum Tuscalanum Press, Copenhagen.
  • Ryholt, K., 2018: Seals and History of the 14th and 15th Dynasties. In: Irene Forstner-Müller & Nadine Moeller (eds.), The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt: Problems and Priorities of Current Research. Proceedings of the Workshop of the Austrian Archaeological Institute and the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Vienna.
Predecessor:
Ineb…
Pharaoh of Egypt
14th Dynasty
Successor:
Hab
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