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Baketaten
it
n
ra
G29tB1
bꜣk.t-ỉtn
"Handmaid of the Aten"
Dynasty 18th Dynasty
Pharaoh(s) Amenhotep III
Akhenaten
Titles King's Daughter
Father Amenhotep III or Akhenaten (?)
Mother Tiye or Kiya (?)
Spouse(s) Akhenaten or Smenkhkare (?)
Issue Tutankhamun (?)
Burial KV35 (reburial?)

Baketaten (ancient Egyptian: bꜣk.t-ỉtn, "Handmaid of the Aten") was a Princess of the 18th Dynasty during the New Kingdom.

Family[]

Baketaten is considered to be the youngest daughter of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and his Queen Tiye, thus the sister of Pharaoh Akhenaten.[1] Other siblings include Thutmose, Sitamun, Iset, Henuttaneb, Nebetah and probably Smenkhkare.

It has also been suggested that Baketaten might be the daughter of Akhenaten and his secondary wife, Kiya. Kiya is shown on a few occasions with a princess whose name ends in -aten. However, the full name of the princess has been lost. It has been speculated that this daughter is Baketaten partially because Baketaten was never named King's Sister in the scenes from Amarna, but only King's Bodily Daughter. After the death of her mother, Baketaten may have been raised by her grandmother Tiye.[2] Because a wine docket of Year 13 mentions Baketaten, it has been proposed that she inherited Kiya's estates after her death.[3]

Attestation[]

Baketaten is only known from the Amarna tomb of Huya, who was Queen Tiye's steward. She is depicted in two scenes.[4] In the first, Queen Tiye is shown seated opposite Pharaoh Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti. In one scene Baketaten is shown seated on a small chair next to her mother Tiye, and in the other banquet scene Baketaten is shown standing next to Tiye. On the east wall of Huya's tomb Akhenaten is shown leading his mother Tiye to a temple. They are accompanied by Baketaten as they enter the temple.[4]

The lintel on the North Wall shows a depiction of the two royal families. On the right side Amenhotep III is shown seated opposite Queen Tiye, who is accompanied by the princess Baketaten. Three female attendants are shown behind Tiye.[4]

Death and Burial[]

Unlike Amenhotep III's known daughters, Baketaten first appeared in the historical record after Amenhotep III's reign during that of Akhenaten. It is likely that she died young or perhaps married someone other than the king (Akhenaten), since she is not mentioned again after Queen Tiye's death. It has been speculated that she was renamed during the Atenist reforms started by her brother, and is identical with Princess Nebetah who was no longer mentioned after Amenhotep III's reign.[5]

Mummy[]

The mummy known as The Younger Lady from the KV35 tomb in the Valley of the Kings has been identified as the mother of Tutankhamun and a late daughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye. Nebetah and Baketaten have thus been considered as the possible identity of this mummy.[6] If not his mother, Nebetah was the aunt of Tutankhamun.

References[]

  1. Dodson & Hilton 2004, p. 154.
  2. Kramer 2003, p. 48-63.
  3. Van Dijk 1997.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 De Garis Davies 1905.
  5. Tyldesley 1998, p.136.
  6. Hawass et al. 2010.

Bibliography[]

  • Dijk, J. van, 1997: A noble lady from Mitanni and other royal favorites from the eighteenth dynasty, from Essays on ancient Egypt in honour of Herman te Velde. Brill.
  • Dodson, A./Hilton, D., 2004: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson, London.
  • Garis Davies, N. de, 1905: The rock tombs of El-Amarna. Parts III and IV, The Egypt Exploration Society (Reprinted 2004).
  • Hawass, Z./Gad, Y.Z./Somaia, I./Khairat, R./Fathalla, D./Hasan, N./Ahmed, A./Elleithy, H./Ball, M./Gaballah, F./Wasef, S./Fateen, M./Amer, H./Gostner, P./Selim, A./Zink, A./Pusch, C.M., 2010: Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family. Journal of the American Medical Association. Chicago, Illinois: American Medical Association. 303 (7): p. 638–647.
  • Kramer, A., 2003: Enigmatic Kiya. In: A Delta-man in Yebu. Edited by A. K. Eyma and C. J. Bennett, Universal Publishers.
  • Tyldesley, J., 1998: Nefertiti: Egypt's Sun Queen. Penguin, London.
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