Berenice IV (Greek: Βερενίκη), was the daughter of Ptolemy XII and probably Cleopatra V Tryphaena, sister of Cleopatra VI Tryphaena, and the famous Cleopatra VII (loved by Julius Caesar and Mark Antony). Ptolemy XII was forced to flee to Rome in 58 BC
and Berenice became co-regent with her mother. They ruled Egypt for a year, until her mother died and she ruled alone.
As a lone woman ruling Egypt, she was expected to marry and have a man as a co-regent. When she did not, her consuls forced her to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but she had him strangled and remained as sole ruler. She later married Archelaus, but he was not co-regent. This Archelaus had been appointed to the priesthood at Comana at Cappadocia by Pompey, and claimed to be a son of Mithridates VI. Strabo instead says his father was Archelaus, a general of Mithridates VI in the First Mithridatic War who defected to the Romans.
The reign of Berenice ended in 55 BC when her father retook the throne with the aid of the Romans led by Aulus Gabinius, and had Berenice executed. Archelaus, who according to Strabo had previously had a friendly relationship with Gabinius, died in battle against the forces of Gabinius.
- Strabo 12.3.34 and 17.1.11
- Appian Mithrid. 114
- Plutarch Antony 3.2 - 3.6
- Dio Cassius 39.12 - 39.14, 39.55 - 39.58