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Gautseshen
W11G1t
V32
M9B1
gꜣw.t-sšn
"Bouquet of Lotus Flowers"
Gautseshen

Coffin of Gautseshen.©

Dynasty 21st Dynasty
Pharaoh(s) Psusennes IOsorkon
Titles Chief of the Harem of Amun in
the Third Phyle
Chief of the Harem of Montu
Chantress of Amun and Mut
Lady of the House
Father Menkheperre
Mother Isetemakhbit
Spouse(s) Tjanefer
Issue Menkheperre, Pinedjem, Nesamun, Gautseshen
Burial Bab el-Gasus
For other pages by this name, see Gautseshen.

Gautseshen (transliteration: gꜣw.t-sšn, meaning: "Bouquet of Lotus Flowers") was an ancient Egyptian chantress of the Twenty-first Dynasty during the Third Intermediate Period.

Titles[]

Gautseshen held several titles including; "Mistress of the House", "Chief of the Harem of Amun in the Third Phyle", "Chief of the Harem of Montu, Lord of Thebes", "Chantress of Amun", and "Great Musician of Mut".

Family[]

Gautseshen is a daughter of the High Priest of Amun Menkheperre and Princess Isetemakhbit, a daughter of Pharaoh Psusennes I. Gautseshen was married to her brother Tjanefer, the Fourth, later Third Prophet of Amun.[1] Alternatively, Broekman proposes that Tjanefer was a son-in-law of Menkheperre and that his father was the Fourth Prophet of Amun, Nespaherenmut.[2]

Two of her brothers, Smendes II and Pinedjem II, became High Priest of Amun. Other brothers included Psusennes, Hori and Ankhefenmut. Her known sisters were Henuttawy, Isetemakhbit, and Meritamen.[3]

Tjanefer and Gautseshen are known to have had at least three sons; Pinedjem and Nesamun, both became Fourth Prophet of Amun, and Menkheperre, who held the position of Third Prophet of Amun.[4] The couple also had a daughter named Gautseshen.

Burial[]

Gautseshen was buried in the Bab el-Gasus cache at Deir el-Bahari. She was probably one of the first buried in the tomb, her coffin found at the back of the small room on top of that of her husband, Tjanefer. Their daughter Gautseshen and sons Menkheperre and Nesamun were also interred in this cache.

Gautseshen's coffins and funerary papyrus are now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The papyrus is a beautifully illustrated copy of the Book of the Dead, which shows the changes in funerary texts during the 21st dynasty, when the solar cult and that of Osiris gradually merged. One of the examples of this can be seen in three spells, which originally mentioned Ra (as it can be seen from 18th dynasty copies of the text), but here they mention Osiris. Another hymn, originally belonging to Osiris, was enriched with solar elements.[5]

References[]

  1. Dodson & Hilton 2004, p. 200-201.
  2. Broekman 2010, p. 127.
  3. Dodson 2012, p. 64-65.
  4. Sousa & Cooney 2021, p. 172-173.
  5. Lucarelli 2000, p. 270-274.

Bibliography[]

  • Broekman, G.P.F., 2010: The Leading Theban Priests of Amun. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 96.
  • Dodson, A./Hilton, D., 2004: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson, London.
  • Dodson, A., 2012: Afterglow of Empire: Egypt from the Fall of the New Kingdom to the Saite Renaissance. The American University In Cairo Press.
  • Lucarelli, R., 2000: The Book of the Dead of Gautseshen. In: Egyptology at the Dawn of the Twenty-first Century. Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Egyptologists, Cairo.
  • Sousa, R./Cooney, K.M., 2021: Bab El-Gasus in Context: Rediscovering the Tomb of the priests of Amun.
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