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Preceded by:
Osorkon II
Pharaoh of Egypt
23rd Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Osorkon II
Horsaiset
Horsaiset

Sarcophagus of Horsaiset at the Cairo Museum.

Reign
868-860 BC (8 years)
Praenomen
M23
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Hedjkheperre-Setepenamun
Radiant Manifestation of Re,
Chosen of Amun
Nomen
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Horsaiset-Meryamun
Horus, Son of Isis, Beloved
of Amun
Legacy
Father Smendes III
Mother Isetemakhbit-Ikhy
Issue Padibastet, Isetweret
Died 860 BC
Burial Medinet Habu
For other pages by this name, see Horsaiset.

Hedjkheperre-Setepenamun Horsaiset (transliteration: ḥrw zꜣ-ỉst, meaning: "Horus, Son of Isis") is an ancient Egyptian Pharaoh, who established himself in Upper Egypt as a rival to Osorkon II of the Twenty-second Dynasty during the Third Intermediate Period. Horsaiset ruled from approximately 868 to 860 BC from Thebes. He is considered a forefather of the Theban based Twenty-third Dynasty, which would be formally established by Takelot II a little less than three decades later.

Family[]

Horsaiset has been proposed as the son of the High Priest of Amun Shoshenq, who in turn was the eldest son of Osorkon I.[1] Indeed, Shoshenq had a son named Horsaiset. However, given the apparent dynastic quarrel that occurred between Takelot I and his brothers Iuwalot and Smendes III, who successively held the post of High Priest of Amun, it seems likely that the rival king Horsaiset, who appears shortly thereafter, inherited his position of power at Thebes from Smendes III. Combined with the fact that Smendes' wife Isetemakhbit-Ikhy held the title of "God's Mother" (mwt-nṯr), which suggests that their son became king, Pharaoh Horsaiset was probably their son.[2] Hence, when Smendes III died prior to Year 4 of Osorkon II, Horsaiset declared himself pharaoh of Upper Egypt, bestowing his father's post as High Priest of Amun directly onto his own son, Padibastet.

A daughter of Horsaiset is also known by name as Isetweret. She was married to Horsaiset, who became the Fourth and ultimately Second Prophet of Amun at Karnak late under Osorkon II.[3]

Burial and Succession[]

Osorkon II's control over Thebes is first documented by two separate Year 12 Nile Level Texts, which means that Horsaiset had died by this time. As a result, Horsaiset's son Padibastet seems to have been replaced as High Priest of Amun with Osorkon II's son Nimlot.

Horsaiset was buried in a tomb at Medinet Habu, situated within the domain of Ramesses III's mortuary temple. The trough of Horsaiset's granite coffin (JE 60137) was usurped from Ramesses II's sister-wife, Henutmire.[4]

Mummy[]

Only his skull and an arm bone survive. An ante-mortem hole in his skull shows signs of an operation.[4]

References[]

  1. Kitchen 1996.
  2. Dodson 2019, p. 106.
  3. Dodson 2019, p. 107.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Dodson 2019, p. 108.

Bibliography[]

  • Dodson, A., 2012 (Revised and Updated 2019 Edition): Afterglow of Empire: Egypt from the Fall of the New Kingdom to the Saite Renaissance. The American University in Cairo Press.
  • Kitchen, K.A., 1996: The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (c.1100-650 BC). Aris & Phillips Ltd. third edition.
Predecessor:
Osorkon II
Pharaoh of Egypt
23rd Dynasty
Successor:
Osorkon II
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