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Punt Ship

The ancient Egyptians did not make a distinction between the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean; this is true for all of the ancient eras of Egypt (including the native dynasties of Egypt, the Hellenistic Period, and the Roman Period). Thus, the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Indian Ocean were all treated as a single maritime area.

Throughout most of ancient Egyptian history, seafaring was restricted to the modern-day Red Sea, and travel beyond this area (the Indian Ocean) was limited. The Egyptians did trade with civilizations south of Punt at least since Hellenistic times. It is unclear if Punt extended into areas including and past the Gulf of Aden, so ports known to the Egyptians in the Gulf of Aden will also be included here.

List of Egyptian Maritime trading partners of the Indian Ocean[]

Sub-Saharan Africa south of Punt[]

  • Aksum Empire
  • Somalia
    • Opone
    • Malao
  • Azania
    • Rhapta

Arabian Peninsula[]

  • Midian
  • Himyarite kingdom
  • Saba
  • Frankincense kingdom

Historical India[]

  • Bharuch
  • Muziris
  • Naura
  • Tyndis
  • Damirica
  • Alexandria in Orietai
  • Regio Patalis