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Libya was a region to the west of Egypt's Nile valley in the Western Desert and along the Mediterranean Sea. Libya was inhabited by Berber tribes.

The fertile strip of land along the Mediterranean coastline to the west of Egypt was known as Cyrenaica to the Greeks. It was originally inhabited by Berber tribes; such as the Libu and Meshwesh, who made frequent incursions into Egypt during the late New Kingdom and early Third Intermediate Period. Cyrenaica was later colonized by the Greeks beginning in the seventh century BC.

The Libyan oases (namely; Kharga, Dakhla, Farafra, Bahariya, and Siwa) were all colonized by the ancient Egyptians.

Libyan culture was heavily influenced by Egyptian culture and their ancient pantheon contained several Egyptian deities. The most notable Egyptian deity worshiped by Libyans was Amun.

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