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An Egyptian mummy

The Pyramid Texts are the oldest religious writings in the world and make up the principal funerary literature

of ancient Egypt. The texts mention the Egyptian's belief in a soul and an afterlife.

According to their beliefs, the body must be preserved in order for the soul to safely travel to the afterlife. First, priests wearing jackal masks representative of the death god Anubis placed the body on a table. The brain was removed by inserting an iron hook into the nostrils. What could not be reached with the hook is washed out with palm wine. The side of the body is opened with a knife and the stomach and intestines are removed to prevent decay. The organs


Edgycational- How Egyptian Mummies were Made! Halloween Special

are placed in sacred canopic jars depicting the four sons of the god Horus. The heart is not removed as it was considered to be a physical aspect of the soul.

After soaking in natron salt for 70 days the body is wrapped in linen strips. Lastly, the body is placed into a case shaped like a human figure called a sarcophagus. For the soul of the departed, however, a new life had begun. The priest would perform the Opening of the Mouth Ceremony during which he would touch the corpse with an adze at various places on the body so the deceased could again see, hear, smell, taste, and talk. After traveling through the underworld, the soul would encounter a ferryman named Hraf-hef, who would row the deceased to paradise.

See also