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Preceded by:
Sheshi (?)[1]
Pharaoh of Egypt
14th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Khatiyre
Nehesy
Reign
ca. 1705 BC[1]
Praenomen
R8F35
<
raaA
a
O22
>
Aasehre
The Hall of Council of Re is Great
Nomen
G39ra
<
nHHsy
>
Nehesy
Nubian
Legacy
Burial Avaris (?)
For other pages by this name, see Panehesy.

Aasehre Nehesy (transliteration: nḥsï, meaning: "Nubian") was an ancient Egyptian Pharaoh of the Fourteenth Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. Most scholars place his reign early in this dynasty, as either the second[2] or sixth[1][3] ruler. He ruled from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta in Lower Egypt.

Chronological Position[]

Throughout the centralised rule of the 13th Dynasty, Canaanite immigrants settled in the eastern Nile Delta. A Canaanite political takeover in the region seems to have occurred ca. 1710-1680 BC, since this time records changes in social structure and burial patterns at Avaris (modern: Tell el-Dab'a), as well as the foundation of a large Canaanite-style temple attributed to Aasehre Nehesy.[4][5] This places Nehesy close to the founding of the 14th Dynasty.

However, Kim Ryholt places five kings before Nehesy in the 14th Dynasty (namely Sheshi, Ammu, Ya'ammu, Yakbim and Qareh) from 1805 BC to the start of Nehesy's reign.[1] This interpretation is contested.[6]

Attestations[]

Nehesy appears in the Turin King List, on the 1st entry of the 9th column (Gardiner, entry 8.1).[7] Nehesy is attested by numerous contemporary artefacts and one of only four 14th Dynasty pharaohs listed in the Turin Canon to have left any attestation (the others being Merdjefare, Nebsenre and Sekheperenre).

Nehesy is attested by two stelae from Tell Habua: one bearing Nehesy's birth name, the other one the throne of the king Aahsere.[8] It was for the first time possible to connect the name Nehesy with the throne name Aasehre (ꜤꜢ-sḥ-rꜤ) thanks to these stelae. A fragmentary obelisk from the Temple of Set in Raahu also bears his royal names. Furthermore, two relief fragments inscribed with the names of the king were unearthed in Tell el-Dab'a in the mid 1980s,[9] their archaeological context dates to ca. 1710-1680 BC.[10] A seated statue, later usurped by Merenptah, is believed to have originally belonged to Nehesy. It is inscribed with "Set, Lord of Avaris", and was found in Tell el-Muqdam.[citation needed]

Nehesy is als attested by numerous scarab seals, many of which attest a Prince Nehesy. This prince is viewed as identical to the 14th Dynasty ruler of the same name.[1] However, he now appears to be a separate individual based on the style of the scarabs naming the prince being notably distinct from those of Aasehre Nehesy, instead matching the Hyksos period, and their archaeological contexts likewise date to the second half of the 15th Dynasty.[6]

Burial and Succession[]

The whereabouts of Nehesy's tomb and mummy remain unknown, but he was presumably buried in the proximity of Avaris. The Turin Canon lists Khatiyre as his direct successor. After Nehesy's death, the 14th Dynasty continued to reign in the Delta region of Lower Egypt under a large number of ephemeral or short-lived rulers.

Legacy[]

Nehesy seems to have been remembered long after his death as several locations in the eastern Delta bore names such as "The Mansion of Pinehsy" and "The Place of the Asiatic Pinehsy", Pinehsy being a later Egyptian rendering of Nehesy.

References[]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Ryholt 1997.
  2. Von Beckerath 1997.
  3. Baker 2008.
  4. Bietak 1997, p. 105-109.
  5. Ben-Tor 2007.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Ben-Tor et al. 1999.
  7. Gardiner 1987.
  8. Abd el-Maqsoud 1983, p. 3-5.
  9. Bietak 1984, p. 59-75.
  10. Bietak 1997, p. 105-109.

Bibliography[]

  • Abd el-Maqsoud, M., 1983: Un monument du roi ˁ3-sḥ-Rˁ Nehsy à Tell-Habua (Sinaï Nord). ASAE 69.
  • Baker, D.D., 2008: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300 - 1069 BC. Stacey International.
  • Beckerath, J. von, 1997: Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägyptens. Münchner Ägyptologische Studien, Vol. 46. Mainz am Rhein.
  • Ben-Tor, D./Allen S.J./Allen J.P., 1999: Seals and Kings. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR) 315.
  • Ben-Tor, D., 2007: Scarabs, Chronology, and Interconnections: Egypt and Palestine in the Second Intermediate Period. Vol. 27 of Orbis biblicus et orientalis / Series archaeologica: Series archaeologica, Academic Press Fribourg.
  • Bietak, M., 1984: Zum Königreich des ˁ3-sḥ-Rˁ. In: Studien zur altägyptischen Kultur. Vol. 11.
  • Bietak, M., 1997: The Center of Hyksos Rule: Avaris (Tell el-Dab`a). In: The Hyksos: New Historical and Archaeological Perspectives. (ed.) E. D. Oren. University Museum Symposium Series, Vol. 8, Philadelphia.
  • Gardiner, A., 1987: The Royal Canon of Turin. Griffith Institute, Oxford.
  • Ryholt, K., 1997: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C. Museum Tuscalanum Press.
Predecessor:
Sheshi (?)
Pharaoh of Egypt
14th Dynasty
Successor:
Khatiyre
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