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Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
Predynastic Period
Protodynastic Period
Early Dynastic Period
1st 2nd
Old Kingdom
3rd 4th 5th 6th
First Intermediate Period
7th 8th 9th 10th 11th
Middle Kingdom
11th 12th
Second Intermediate Period
13th 14th 15th 16th 17th
Abydos Dynasty
New Kingdom
18th 19th 20th
Third Intermediate Period
21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th
Late Period
26th 27th 28th
29th 30th 31st
Hellenistic Period
Argead Dynasty
Ptolemaic Dynasty

The Protodynastic Period is characterised as being the time when Ancient Egypt was undergoing the process of political unification, leading to a unified state during the Early Dynastic Period. Furthermore, it is during this time when the Egyptian Language was first being recorded in Egyptian hieroglyphs. There is also strong archaeological evidence of Egyptian settlements in southern Canaan during the Protodynastic Period, which have been regarded as colonies or trading entrepôts.

State formation began during this era and perhaps even earlier. Various small city-states arose along the Nile. Centuries of conquest reduced Upper Egypt to three major states; Thinis, Naqada, and Nekhen. Not much is known of Lower Egypt's political makeup but they may have shared in Naqada's Set cult while Thinis and Nekhen were part of the Horus cult. Being sandwiched by Thinis and Nekhen, Naqada was the first to fall. Thinis then conquered Lower Egypt. Nekhen's relationship with Thinis is uncertain but these two states may have merged peacefully with the Thinite royal family ruling all of Egypt. The Thinite kings are buried at Abydos in the Umm el-Qa'ab cemetery.

Most Egyptologists consider Narmer to be the last king of this period (under the name "Scorpion II"), as well as the king who united Egypt and became the first king of the First Dynasty.

Lower Egypt
Name Dates Comments
[...]pu Only known from the Palermo stone
Seka Only known from the Palermo stone
Khayu Only known from the Palermo stone
Tiu Only known from the Palermo stone
Tjesh Only known from the Palermo stone
Neheb Only known from the Palermo stone
Wazner Only known from the Palermo stone
Mekh Only known from the Palermo stone
[...]a Only known from the Palermo stone
Hedju-Hor Only known from two clay jugs from Tura
Wash c. 3150 BC Only known from the Narmer Palette
Upper Egypt
Name Dates Comments
Scorpion I c. 3300-3250 BC First ruler of Upper Egypt
Crocodile c. 3170 BC Potentially read Shendju; identity and existence are disputed.
Iry-Hor c. 3170 BC Correct chronological position unclear.
Ka c. 3160 BC Maybe read Sekhen rather than Ka. Correct chronological position unclear.
Scorpion II c. 3150 BC Potentially read Serqet; possibly the same person as Narmer.

References

  • Anđelković, Branislav. 2002. "Southern Canaan as an Egyptian Protodynastic Colony." Cahiers Caribéens d’Égyptologie 3/4 (Dix ans de hiéroglyphes au campus):75–92.
  • Bard, Katherine, A. 2000. "The Emergence of the Egyptian State." In The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 61–88
  • Midant-Reynes, Béatrix. 2000. The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Pharaohs. Translated by Ian Shaw. Oxford and Malden: Blackwell Publishers
  • Wilkinson, Toby Alexander Howard. 2001. Early Dynastic Egypt. 2nd ed. London: Routledge
  • Wright, Mary. 1985. "Conacts Between Egypt and Syro-Palestine During the Protodynastic Period." Biblical Archeologist: Perspectives on the Ancient World from Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean 48 (4):240–253.

See also

  • Naqada III

External resources

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