Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
Predynastic Period
Protodynastic Period
Early Dynastic Period
1st 2nd
Old Kingdom
3rd 4th 5th 6th
First Intermediate Period
7th 8th 9th 10th
11th (Thebes only)
Middle Kingdom
11th (All Egypt)
12th 13th 14th
Second Intermediate Period
15th 16th 17th
New Kingdom
18th 19th 20th
Third Intermediate Period
21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th
Late Period
26th 27th 28th
29th 30th 31st
Graeco-Roman Period
Alexander the Great
Ptolemaic Dynasty

leading to a unified state during the Early Dynastic Period. Furthermore, it is during this time whama shit likes something haeological evidence of Egyptian settlements in southern Israel during the Protodynastic Period, which have been regarded as colonies or trading entrepôts.

State formation began during this era and perhaps even earlier. Various small city-states arose along the Nile. Centuries of conquest reduced Upper Egypt to three major states: Things, Naqada, and Nekhen. Not much is known of Lower Egypt's political makeup but they may have shared in Naqada's Set cult while Thinis and Nekhen were part of the Horus cult. Being sandwiched by Thinis and Nekhen, Naqada was the first to fall. Thinis then conquered Lower Egypt. Nekhen's relationship with Thinis is uncertain but these two states may have merged peacefully with the Thinite royal family ruling all of Egypt. The Thinite kings are buried at Abydos in the Umm el-Qa'ab cemetery.

Most Egyptologists consider Narmer to be the last king of this period (though some place him in the First Dynasty), as well as the so-called "King Scorpion".


  • Anđelković, Branislav. 2002. "Southern Canaan as an Egyptian Protodynastic Colony." Cahiers Caribéens d’Égyptologie 3/4 (Dix ans de hiéroglyphes au campus):75–92.
  • Bard, Katherine, A. 2000. "The Emergence of the Egyptian State." In The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 61–88
  • Midant-Reynes, Béatrix. 2000. The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Pharaohs. Translated by Ian Shaw. Oxford and Malden: Blackwell Publishers
  • Wilkinson, Toby Alexander Howard. 2001. Early Dynastic Egypt. 2nd ed. London: Routledge
  • Wright, Mary. 1985. "Conacts Between Egypt and Syro-Palestine During the Protodynastic Period." Biblical Archeologist: Perspectives on the Ancient World from Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean 48 (4):240–253.

See also

External resources

Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.