|Dynasties of Ancient Egypt|
|Early Dynastic Period|
|3rd 4th 5th 6th|
|First Intermediate Period|
|7th 8th 9th 10th 11th|
|Second Intermediate Period|
|13th 14th 15th 16th 17th|
|18th 19th 20th|
|Third Intermediate Period|
|21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th|
|26th 27th 28th|
|29th 30th 31st|
The Ptolemaic Dynasty was a Hellenistic royal family which ruled over Egypt for nearly 300 years, from 305 BCE to 30 BCE.
Ptolemy, a Macedonian and one of Alexander the Great's generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BCE. In 305 BCE, he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as "Soter" (saviour). The Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BCE.
All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy. Ptolemaic queens, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice. The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and later between Octavian and Mark Antony. Her suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt.
Ptolemaic rulers and consorts
The dates in brackets are regnal dates for the kings. They frequently ruled jointly with their wives, who were often also their sisters. Several queens exercised regal authority, but the most famous and successful was Cleopatra VII (51 BCE-30 BCE), with her two brothers and her son as successive nominal co-rulers. Several systems exist for numbering the later rulers; the one used here is the one most widely used by modern scholars. Dates are years of reign.
|Ptolemy I Soter||305-282 BC|
|Ptolemy II Philadelphos||284-246 BC|
|Arsinoe II Philadelphos||277-270 BC||Wife of Ptolemy II|
|Ptolemy III Euergetes||246-222 BC|
|Berenice II Euergetes||244/243-222 BC|
|Ptolemy IV Philopator||222-204 BC|
|Arsinoe III Philopator||220–204 BC||Wife of Ptolemy IV. Murdered.|
|Ptolemy V Epiphanes Eucharistos||204-180 BC|
|Cleopatra I Syra||193-176 BC||Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority|
|Ptolemy VI Philometor||180-164 BC and 163-145 BC||Lived under the control of Ptolemy VIII 164 BC–163 BC; restored 163 BC Died 145 BC|
|Cleopatra II Philometora Soteira||175-164 BC, 163–127 BC and 124–116 BC||Wife of Ptolemy VI. Married Ptolemy VIII around 145 BC; led revolt against him in 131 BC and became sole ruler of Egypt. Later reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy VIII until 116 BC.|
|Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Tryphon||171–163 BC, 144–131 BC and 127–116 BC||Proclaimed king by Alexandrians in 170 BC; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 169 to 164 BC. Restored 145–131 BC and again in 127 BC. Died 116 BC|
|Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator||145–144 BC||Proclaimed co-ruler by his father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II|
|Cleopatra III Euergetes||142–131 BC and 127–107 BC||Second wife of Ptolemy VIII. Restored with Ptolemy VIII in 127 BC; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X. Murdered by her own son Ptolemy X.|
|Ptolemy Memphites||131 BC||Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII|
|Ptolemy IX Soter||116-110 BC||Died 80 BC|
|Cleopatra IV||116-115 BC||Briefly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III. Later murdered.|
|Ptolemy X Alexander||110-109 BC||Died 88 BC|
|Berenice III Cleopatra||81-80 BC||Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later|
|Ptolemy XI Alexander||80 BC||Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for killing Berenice III|
|Ptolemy XII Auletes||80-58 BC and 55–51 BC||Son of Ptolemy IX; deposed in 58 BC Reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death in 51 BC|
|Cleopatra V Tryphaena||79–68 BC||Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV|
|Cleopatra VI Tryphaena||58–57 BC||Daughter of Ptolemy XII, but theorised by some Egyptologists to actually be the same person as Cleopatra V.|
|Berenice IV Epiphaneia||58–55 BC||Daughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but had him strangled. Joint rule with Cleopatra VI until 57 BC.|
|Cleopatra VII Philopator||52-30 BC||Ruled jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV. In modern usage, the stand-alone use of "Cleopatra" with no ordinal number usually refers to Cleopatra VII. Committed suicide.|
|Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator||51-47 BC||Brother of Cleopatra VII|
|Arsinoe IV||48-47 BC||In opposition to Cleopatra VII|
|Ptolemy XIV Philopator||47–44 BC||Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII|
|Ptolemy XV Caesarion||44-30 BC||Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra. Last known ruler of ancient Egypt when Rome took over.|
|Horwennefer||205–199 BC||Rebel king of Upper Egypt.|
|Ankhwennefer||199–185 BC||Rebel king of Upper Egypt.|
|Horsaiset-Sausir||131–130 BC||Rebel king of Upper Egypt.|
Other members of the Ptolemaic dynasty
- Ptolemy Keraunos (died 279 BCE) - eldest son of Ptolemy I Soter. Eventually became king of Macedon.
- Ptolemy Apion (died 96 BCE) - son of Ptolemy VIII Physcon. Made king of Cyrenaica. Bequeathed Cyrenaica to Rome.
- Ptolemy Philadelphus (born 36 BC) - son of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII.
- Ptolemy of Mauretania (died ACE 40) - son of Juba II of Mauretania and Cleopatra Selene (II), daughter of Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony. King of Mauretania.