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Preceded by:
Ramesses VI
Pharaoh of Egypt
20th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Ramesses VIII
Ramesses VII
Prince: Ramesses-Itamun
Ramses 7

Statue of Ramesses VII standing behind Amun at the Egyptian Museum, Cairo.

Reign
1137-1130 BC (7 years)
Praenomen
M23
t
L2
t
<
raF12H6C12U6rastp
n
>
Usermaatre-Setepenre-Meryamun
The Justice of Re is Powerful,
Chosen of Re, Beloved of Amun
Nomen
G39N5
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raC12msz
z
itR8S38O28
>
Ramesses-Itamun-
Netjerheqaiunu
Born of Re, Amun is his Father,
God Ruler of Heliopolis
Horus name
G5E1
D40
D36
n
D6
G17M23A42O33
Kanakhte-Anemnesu
Strong Bull, Magnificent of Royalty
Nebty name
G16G17D36
V31
Y1
I6
t
O49
wD36
f
V1
Y1
A24N25
t Z1
T14A1B1Z3N25
Mekkemit-Wafkhastiu
Protector of Egypt,
who vanquishes foreigners
Golden Horus
G8F12M4M4M4W19C12
Userrenputmiamun
Rich in years, like Amun
Legacy
Father Ramesses VI
Mother Nubkhesbed
Issue Ramesses (?)
Died 1130 BC
Burial KV1
For other pages by this name, see Ramesses.

Usermaatre-Setepenre-Meryamun Ramesses VII (reigned 1137 B.C.E. – 1130 B.C.E.) was the sixth pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty during the New Kingdom. He was the son of Ramesses VI. His princely name prior to kingship was Ramesses-Itamun.

Family[]

See also: 20th Dynasty Family Tree.

Ramesses VII was the son of Pharaoh Ramesses VI and Queen Nubkhesbed. His siblings include; Amunherkhepeshef, Panebenkemit and Iset,[1] the latter of whom was appoined to the priestly offices of God's Wife of Amun and Divine Adoratrice of Amun by her father.

No consorts are known to Ramesses VII. An ostracon, currently at the Louvre Museum in Paris (O. Louvre N. 497), probably names a son of Ramesses VII; "given by favour of the King to his son, his beloved, Generalissimo, First King's Son of [His] Majesty, Ramesses, justified before the lords of truth in the Necropolis".[2] The prince thus appears to have predeceased Ramesses VII.

Dates and Length of Reign[]

The Turin Accounting Papyrus 1907+1908 is dated to Year 7 III Shemu day 26 of his reign and has been reconstructed to show that 11 full years passed from Year 5 of his predecessor Ramesses VI to Year 7 of his own reign.[3] Ramesses VII's seventh year is also attested on an ostracon (Strasbourg h 84), which is dated to II Shemu day 16 of his Regnal Year 7.[4] n 1980, C.J. Eyre demonstrated that a Year 8 papyrus belonged to the reign of Ramesses VII. This papyrus, P. Turin Cat. 1883 + 2095, dated to Year 8 IV Shemu day 25 (most likely Ramesses VII), details the record of the commissioning of some copper work and mentions two foremen at Deir el-Medina: Nekhemmut and Hor[mose].[5][6] The foreman Hormose was previously attested in office only during the reign of Ramesses IX while his father and predecessor in this post—a certain Ankherkhau—served in office from the second decade of the reign of Ramesses III through to Year 4 of Ramesses VII, where he is shown acting with Nekhemmut and the scribe Horisheri.[5] The new Year 8 papyrus proves that Hormose succeeded to his father's office as foreman by Year 8 of Ramesses VII. Dominique Valbelle regards C.J. Eyre's attribution of this document to Ramesses VII as uncertain since the chief workman Hormose was previously only securely attested in office in Years 6 and 7 of Ramesses IX instead.[6] However, this papyrus clearly bears the cartouche of Usermaatre Setepenre—the prenomen of Ramesses VII—at its beginning whereas the royal name of Ramesses IX was Neferkare—which rules out Ramesses IX as the king whose Year 8 is recorded in the P. Turin 1883 + 2095 document. The presence of Hormose's contemporary—the foreman Nekhemmut—also establishes that this papyrus dates to the mid-20th dynasty--most probably to the reign of Ramesses VII, since Nekhemmut is attested in office "from the second year of Ramesses IV until the seventeenth year of Ramesses IX".[5]

Since Ramesses VII's accession is known to have occurred around the end of III Peret,[7] the king would have ruled Egypt for a minimum period of 7 years and 5 months when this document was drawn up provided that it belonged to his reign as seems probable from the royal name given in the papyrus. The respected German Egyptologist Jürgen von Beckerath also accepts C.J. Eyre's evidence that Year 8 IV Shemu day 25 was Ramesses VII's highest known date.[7] However, the accession date of his successor, Ramesses VIII, has been fixed by Amin Amer to an 8-month period between I Peret day 2 and I Akhet day 13,[8] or 5 months after the Year 8 IV Shemu day 25 date of Ramesses VII. Therefore, if Ramesses VII did not die between the short 2 week period between IV Shemu day 29 to I Akhet 13, this pharaoh would have been on the throne for at least another 4 more months until I Peret day 2 and ruled Egypt for 7 years and 9 months when he died (perhaps slightly longer if he died after I Peret day 2). Therefore, it is possible that Ramesses VII could have ruled Egypt for almost 8 years; at present, his certain reign length is 7 years and 5 months.

Policy[]

Very little is known about his reign, though it was evidently a period of some turmoil, as grain prices soared.[9]

Burial and Succession[]

Ramesses VII was buried in his KV1 rock-cut tomb in the Valley of the Kings. He was succeeded on the throne by Ramesses VIII, who was not the former's son but his uncle, which may indicate a continuing problem in the royal succession.[10]

Ramesses VII's mummy has never been found, though four cups inscribed with his royal name were found in the royal cache at Deir el-Bahari,[11] which may indicate that his remains were among those of the New Kingdom pharaohs re-buried here.

See also[]

References[]

  1. Dodson & Hilton 2004, p. 186.
  2. Kitchen 1972, p. 185.
  3. Ventura 1983, p. 271-277.
  4. Janssen 1966, p. 91.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Eyre 1980, p. 168-170.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Valbelle 1985, note 8.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Von Beckerath 1997, p. 201.
  8. Amer 1981, p. 9-12.
  9. Shaw 2000, p. 308.
  10. Clayton 1994, p. 167.
  11. Reeves & Wilkinson 1997, p. 167.

Bibliography[]

  • Amer, A., 1981: A Unique Theban Tomb Inscription under Ramesses VIII. GM 49.
  • Beckerath, J. von, 1997: Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz.
  • Clayton, P., 1994: Chronicle of the Pharaohs. Thames & Hudson, London.
  • Dodson, A./Hilton, D., 2004: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson, London.
  • Eyre, C.J., 1980: The reign-length of Ramesses VII. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 66.
  • Kitchen K.A., 1972: Ramesses VII and the Twentieth Dynasty. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 58.
  • Reeves, N./Wilkinson R.H., 1997: The Complete Valley of the Kings. Thames & Hudson, London.
  • Shaw, I., 2000: The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press.
  • Valbelle, D., 1985: Les Ouvriers de la tombe: Deir el-Médineh à l'époque Ramesside.
  • Ventura, R., 1983: More Chronological Evidence from Turin Papyrus Cat.1907+1908. JNES 42, Vol. 4.
Predecessor:
Ramesses VI
Pharaoh of Egypt
Twentieth Dynasty
Successor:
Ramesses VIII
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