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Preceded by:
Ramesses IX
Pharaoh of Egypt
20th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Ramesses XI
Ramesses X
Prince: Amunherkhepeshef
Ramesse10ScarabBologna

Scarab-seal of Ramesses X.©

Reign
1111–1107 BC (4 years)
Praenomen
M23
t
L2
t
<
raL1C10raU21
n
>
Khepermaatre-Setepenre
Re is the Manifestation
of Ma'at, Chosen of Re
Nomen
G39N5
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C2C12msz
z
N36
imn
n
>
Ramesses-Amunherkhepeshef-
Meryamun
Born of Re, Amun is with
his Strong Arm
Horus name
G5E1
D40
C2z
N28
D36
D36
n
O33
Kanakhte-Sekhaenre
Strong Bull,
He who Rises as Re
Legacy
Father Ramesses IX (?)
Mother Baketwerenro (?)
Issue Ramesses XI (?)
Died 1107 BC
Burial KV18 (unused?)
For other pages by this name, see Ramesses.

Khepermaatre-Setepenre Ramesses X (reigned 1111 B.C.E. – 1107 B.C.E.) was the ninth and penultimate Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty during the New Kingdom. His name prior to assuming the crown was Amunherkhepeshef.

Family[]

See also: 20th Dynasty Family Tree.

Ramesses X's position within the royal family of the Twentieth Dynasty remains uncertain, though it has been speculated that he was the son of his predecessor Ramesses IX and father of his successor Ramesses XI. If this were the case, his mother would have probably been Queen Baketwerenro and the princes Mentuherkhepeshef and Nebmaatre would be his (half-)brothers.

Dates and Length of Reign[]

Ramesses X's accession day fell on 1 Peret 27.[1] His highest attested regnal year is year 3. The highest attested date in his reign is either "year 3, II Akhet 2"[2] or possibly "year 3, IV Akhet (no day given)".[2]

Since his successor Ramesses XI came to the throne on 3 Shemu 20,[3] it automatically follows that Ramesses X must have lived into an as yet unattested regnal Year 4. The theory put forward on astronomical grounds by Richard Parker that Ramesses X may have reigned for 9 years, has since been abandoned.[4] Likewise, the suggested ascription of Theban graffito 1860a to a hypothetical year 8 of Ramesses X[5] is no longer supported.[6]

Monuments and Attestations[]

Ramesses X is a poorly documented king. All that is really known about his kingship is that the general insecurity and wave of tomb robberies which had become prevalent under his predecessors continued to grow under his reign. His Year 2 is attested by Papyrus Turin 1932+1939 while his Year 3 is documented in the Necropolis Journal of a workman of Deir el-Medina.[7] This diary mentions the general idleness of the necropolis workmen, at least partly due to the threat posed by Libyan marauders in the Valley of the Kings. It records that the Deir el-Medina workmen were absent from work in Year 3 III Peret days 6, 9, 11, 12, 18, 21 and 24 for fear of the "desert-dwellers" (i.e., the Libyans or perhaps more specifically Meshwesh) who evidently roamed through Upper Egypt and Thebes at will.[8] This is partly a result of the massive Libyan influx into the Western Delta region of Lower Egypt during this time. Ramesses X is also the last New Kingdom king whose rule over Nubia is attested, from an inscription at Aniba.[9]

Burial and Succession[]

Ramesses X's KV18 rock-cut tomb in the Valley of the Kings was unfinished and it is uncertain if he was buried here since no remains or fragments of funerary objects were discovered within it. He was succeeded by Ramesses XI, who may or may not have been his son.

See also[]

References[]

  1. Von Beckerath 1984, p. 8-9.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Botti & Peet 1928, p. 55.
  3. Ohlhafer 1993, p. 59.
  4. Parker 1951, p. 163-164.
  5. Bierbrier 1972, p. 195-199; 1975, p. 251.
  6. Bell 1980, p. 7-27.
  7. Wente & Van Siclen 1976, p. 261.
  8. Cerny 1975, p. 618.
  9. Grimal 1992, p. 291.

Bibliography[]

  • Beckerath, J. von, 1984: Drei Thronbesteigungsdaten der XX. Dynastie GM 79.
  • Bell, L.D., 1980: Only one High Priest Ramessesnakht and the Second Prophet Nesamun his younger Son. Serapis 6.
  • Bierbrier, M., 1972: A Second High Priest Ramessesnakht? The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 58.
  • Bierbrier, M., 1975: The Length of the Reign of Ramesses X. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 61.
  • Botti, G./Peet, E., 1928: Il Giornale della necropoli di Tebe. I papiri ieratici del Museo di Torino.
  • Cerny, J., 1975: Egypt from the Death of Ramesses III. In: Cambridge Archaeological History (CAH), the Middle East and the Aegean Region c.1380-1000 BC.
  • Grimal, N., 1992: A History of Ancient Egypt. Blackwell Books.
  • Ohlhafer, K., 1993: Zum Thronbesteigungsdatum Ramses' XI. und zur Abfolge der Grabräuberpapyri aus Jahr 1 und 2 wHm-msw.t. GM 135.
  • Parker, R.A., 1951: The Length of the Reign of Ramesses X. RdÉ 11.
  • Wente, E.F./Siclen, C.C. van, 1976: A Chronology of the New Kingdom. In: Studies in Honor of George R. Hughes. SAOC, Vol. 39.
Predecessor:
Ramesses IX
Pharaoh of Egypt
Twentieth Dynasty
Successor:
Ramesses XI
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