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Second Prophet of Amun (transliteration: ḥm nṯr snnw n ỉmn) was an ancient Egyptian religious occupational title held by the second highest-ranking priest in the priesthood of the god Amun, which is situated at the temple of Amun in Karnak, Thebes. One rank above was the office of the High Priest of Amun, also First Prophet of Amun. The Second Prophet of Amun office was created at the beginning of the Eighteenth Dynasty during the New Kingdom.

Ranking in the Amun priesthood[]

The four highest ranking priestly offices in the Amun priesthood:[1]

History[]

New Kingdom[]

The office of second prophet of Amun was created in the beginning of the 18th Dynasty during the reign of Pharaoh Ahmose II. A donation stela from Karnak records how king Ahmose purchased the office of Second Prophet of Amun and endowed the position with land, goods and administrators. The position of Second Prophet of Amun was put under the authority of the God's Wife of Amun at its creation.[2]

"Made in the presence of the [...officials...] of the territory of Thebes and the temple priesthood of Amun. What was said m hm n stp-si l.p.h. on this day, [saying]: "The office of Second Priest of Amun [shall] belong to the God's Wife, Great Royal Wife, united with the white crown, Ahmose-Nefertari, living; having been made for her in an ỉmyt-pr, from son to son, heir to heir, [without allowing] it [to be interfered by anybody forever and ever."[3]

he endowment was given to Ahmose-Nefertari and her descendants.[4] The record was signed and later confirmed by an oracle.[3] Records from a later era indicate that in this position she would have been responsible for all temple properties, administration of estates, workshops, treasuries and all the associated administration staff.[5]

The priesthood of Amun rose in power during the early Eighteenth Dynasty through significant tributes to the god Amun by pharaohs such as Hatshepsut and Thutmose III.[6] During both their reigns, the Second Prophet was involved in royal constructions at Karnak. The Second Prophet Puimre oversaw the erection of an ebony shrine dedicated to Hatshepsut, the construction of two obelisks for Thutmose II and the construction of doors made of Tura limestone. In Puimre's tomb it is shown that he additionally was in charge of receiving goods from oases and tribute from Nubia, including captives.[7]

At the end of the Twentieth Dynasty, the Second Prophet of Amun Nesamun may have acted as 'temporary' High Priest to replace his brother Amenhotep during the transgression against the latter by the Viceroy of Kush Panehesy.[8] Such a scenario might explain why he was apparently allowed by the next High Priest Piankh to perform the role normally played solely by the High Priest of Amun.

Third Intermediate Period[]

Under the High Priests of Amun Herihor and Pinedjem I in the Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt their position became equal to that of the Pharaoh. As a result, de facto rule was devided between the pharaohs in Lower Egypt and High Priests in Upper Egypt. The position of Second Prophet essentially became an Upper Egyptian equivalent to that of the Crown Prince in Lower Egypt and was still taken up by relatives of the High Priests.

During the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt the Nubian rulers broke the hold of the local families on these priestly positions. Pharaoh Shabaqa appointed Kelbasken as 4th prophet and later his son Horemakhet as High Priest of Amun. Pharaoh Taharqa appointed his son Nesishutefnut as Second Prophet of Amun.[9]

List of Second Prophets of Amun[]

The following Second Prophets of Amun are known:

New Kingdom[]

Priest Dynasty Pharaoh Comment
Ahmose-Nefertari 18th Dynasty Ahmose IIThutmose I King's Great Wife of Pharaoh Ahmose II, mother of Pharaoh Amenhotep I. Also held the office of God's Wife of Amun.
Puyemre 18th Dynasty Thutmose III Son-in-law of High Priest of Amun Hapuseneb.
Ahmose 18th Dynasty Thutmose III
Menkheperreseneb II 18th Dynasty Hatshepsut and Thutmose III Later promoted to the office of High Priest of Amun.
Neferhotep 18th Dynasty Thutmose III Son of Vizier Rekhmire.
Merymaat 18th Dynasty Thutmose III Son of Vizier Aametju-Ahmose.
Mahu 18th Dynasty Amenhotep II (?) Known from the TT88 tomb of Pehsukher-Tjenenu.[7]
Amenhotep-Saiset 18th Dynasty Thutmose IV Known from his TT75 tomb.
Nefer 18th Dynasty Amenhotep IIAmenhotep III
Anen 18th Dynasty Amenhotep III Brother of Queen Tiye.
Simut 18th Dynasty Amenhotep III
Ay 18th Dynasty Ay Also served as High Priest of Mut.
Bakenkhonsu I 19th Dynasty Ramesses II Later promoted to the office of High Priest of Amun.
Roma-Iry 19th Dynasty Ramesses II Brother of Bakenkhonsu I. Later became High Priest of Amun.
Bakenkhonsu 19th Dynasty Ramesses IIAmenmesses Son of Roma-Iry.
Hornakhte 20th Dynasty Ramesses III (?)
Nesamun 20th Dynasty Ramesses XI Son of High Priest of Amun Ramessesnakhte.

Third Intermediate and Late Period[]

Priest Dynasty Pharaoh Comment
Heqanefer 21st Dynasty Smendes I Son of High Priest of Amun Piankh and brother of the High Priest of Amun Pinedjem I.
Amenhatpamesha (?) 21st Dynasty Smendes I May have been a Second Prophet of Amun.[10]
Smendes II 21st Dynasty Amenemnisut and Psusennes I Son of High Priest of Amun Menkheperre. Later became High Priest of Amun.
Pinedjem II 21st Dynasty Psusennes I Son of High Priest of Amun Menkheperre. Later became High Priest of Amun.
Tjanefer 21st Dynasty Psusennes I Son(-in-law) of High Priest of Amun Menkheperre. Served mainly as Third Prophet of Amun, but also briefly as Second Prophet of Amun at the end of his life.
Psusennes II 21st Dynasty AmenemopetSiamun Son of High Priest of Amun Pinedjem II. Later became High Priest of Amun and Pharaoh.
Djedptahiuefankh 21st and 22nd Dynasty Psusennes II and Shoshenq I Probable son of High Priest of Amun and Pharaoh Psusennes II. Known from his burial in the royal cache at Deir el-Bahari.
Bakenamun 22nd Dynasty Osorkon I or Osorkon II Known from inscriptions from a chapel of Thoth and Amun at Karnak.[11]
Pashereniset 22nd and/or 23rd Dynasty Known from shabtis and canopics jars (now in Cairo), originally found at Tehneh.[11]
Horsaiset 23rd Dynasty Horsaiset Son of the Fourth Prophet of Amun Nakhtefmut-Djedthutiuefankh[11] and son-in-law of Pharaoh Horsaiset.
Djedptahiuefankh 23rd Dynasty Takelot III (?) Son of Pharaoh Takelot III.[11]
Neshorbedjet 23rd Dynasty Takelot III
Djedkhonsiuefankh (?) 23rd Dynasty Iupet II Son of Horsaiset and possibly a Second Prophet of Amun.[11]
Patjenfy 25th Dynasty Shabaka
Nesishutefnut 25th Dynasty Taharqa Son of Pharaoh Taharqa.[9]
Neshorbedjet 26th Dynasty Psamtik I

See also[]

References[]

  1. Dodson & Hilton 2004.
  2. O'Connor & Cline 2001, p. 209-210.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Shaw 2010, p. 175-190.
  4. Tyldesley 2006.
  5. Lesko 1999, p. 246.
  6. Breasted 1906.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Cline & O'Connor 2006.
  8. Thijs 2009, p. 343-353.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Morkot 2000, p. 236-237.
  10. Kitchen 1986.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Broekman 2010, p. 125-148.

Bibliography[]

  • Breated, J.H., 1906: Ancient Records of Egypt. Volume 2: The Eighteenth Dynasty. University of Chicago Press.
  • Broekman, G.P.F., 2010: The leading Theban Priests of Amun and their families under Libyan Rule. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 96.
  • Cline, E.H./O'Connor, D.B., 2006: Thutmose III: A New Biography. University of Michigan Press.
  • Dodson, A./Hilton, D., 2004: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson, London.
  • Kitchen, K.A., 1986: The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, 1100-650 B.C. (Book & Supplement) Aris & Phillips.
  • Lesko, B.S., 1999: The Great Goddesses of Egypt. University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Morkot, R.G., 2000: The Black Pharaohs: Egypt's Nubian Rulers. The Rubicon Press.
  • O'Connor, D.B./Cline, E.H., 2001: Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign. University of Michigan Press.
  • Shaw, G.J., 2010: The meaning of the phrase M ḤM N STP-Sⳍ. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 96.
  • Thijs, A., 2009: The Second Prophet Nesamun and his claim to the High-Priesthood. Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur (SAK), Vol. 38.
  • Tyldesley, J., 2006: Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. Thames & Hudson, London.
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