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Preceded by:
Senusret II
Pharaoh of Egypt
12th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Amenemhat III
Senusret III
Senwosret
Hellenized: Sesostris
SenusretIII

Statue of Senusret III at the British Museum, London.

Reign
1878-1839 BC (39 years)
Praenomen Khakaure
The Souls of Re Appeared
Nomen Senusret
Man of the Strong One
Horus name Netjerkheperu
Divine of Forms
Nebty name Netjermesut
Divine of Birth
Golden Horus Kheper
The Golden Horus is Created
Legacy
Father Senusret II
Mother Khnemetneferhedjet I
Consort(s) Henutnofret, Itakayt,
Khnemetneferhedjet II
Issue Amenemhat III
Died 1839 BC
Burial Pyramid of Senusret III (?)
Monuments Buhen, Toshka
For other pages by this name, see Senusret.

Khakaure Senusret III (transliteration: zn-wsr.t, meaning: "Man of Usret") was a Pharaoh of Egypt. He ruled from 1878 BC to 1839 BC, and was the fifth monarch of the Twelfth Dynasty during the Middle Kingdom. He was a Great Pharaoh of the twelfth Dynasty and is supposed to be the most powerful Egyptian ruler of this time. For this, he is regarded as one of the sources for the legend about Sesostris.

Senusret III continued his Kingdom's expansion deep into Nubia (from 1866 to 1863 BC) where he erected massive River Forts including Buhen and Toshka at Uronarti. One stela mentions his military activities against both Nubia and Palestine.[1] Morgan, in 1894, reported rock inscriptions near Sehel Island documenting his digging of a canal.[1] He erected a temple and town in Abydos, and another temple in Medamud.[1]

His pyramid was constructed at Dahshur. A papyrus in the Berlin Museum shows Year 20 of his reign is equivalent to Year 1 of his son Amenemhat III. This means that he initiated a coregency with his son in this year. According to Josef Wegner[2], a Year 39 hieratic control note was recovered on a white limestone block from "a securely defined deposit of construction debris produced from the building of the Senwosret III mortuary temple. The fragment itself is part of the remnants of the temple construction. This deposit provides evidence for the date of construction of the mortuary temple of Senwosret III at Abydos."(p.251) Wegner stresses that it is unlikely that Amenemhet III, Senusret's son and successor would still be working on his father's temple nearly 4 decades into his own reign and notes that the only possible solution for the block's existence here is that Senusret III had a 39 Year reign, with the final 20 years in coregency with his son Amenemhat III. Since the project was associated with a project of Senusret III, his Regnal Year was presumably used to date the block, rather than Year 20 of Amenemhet III. This implies that Senusret was still alive in the first 2 decades of his son's reign prior to his death.

Visually, Senusret III is known for his strikingly somber sculptures in which he appears careworn and grave.

References[]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Senusret (III) Khakhaure.
  2. Josef Wegner, The Nature and Chronology of the Senwosret III–Amenemhat III Regnal Succession: Some Considerations based on new evidence from the Mortuary Temple of Senwosret III at Abydos, JNES 55, Vol.4, (1996), pp.249-279

Bibliography[]

  • Grajetzki, W., 2006: The Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt: History,Archaeology and Society. Duckworth, London.

External links[]

Predecessor:
Senusret II
Pharaoh of Egypt
12th Dynasty
Successor:
Amenemhat III
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