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Smendes III
Nesbanebdjedet
F20
z
Z4
Y1
G29
nb
R11R11
nsï-bꜣ-nb-ḏd.t
"He of Banebdjedet"
Predecessor:
Iuwalot
High Priest of Amun Successor:
Padibastet
Dynasty 22nd Dynasty
Pharaoh(s) Takelot IOsorkon II
Titles King's Son
High Priest of Amun
Father Osorkon I
Mother Maatkare or Shepensopdet
Spouse(s) Isetemakhbit-Ikhy
Issue Horsaiset
Burial Unknown
For other pages by this name, see Smendes.

Smendes III, the Hellenized version of Nesbanebdjedet (transliteration: nsï-bꜣ-nb-ḏd.t, meaning: "He of Banebdjedet") was an ancient Egyptian prince of the Twenty-second Dynasty during the Third Intermediate Period.

Family[]

Smendes was the third son of Pharaoh Osorkon I. The identity of his mother remains unknown, but – given the later succession – she was probably not his father's queen consort Tashedkhonsu. His (half-)brothers include; Shoshenq and Iuwalot, both of whom preceded Smendes as High Priest of Amun in Thebes; and Takelot I, the youngest brother who became Pharaoh.

Smendes was married to the Chief of the Harem of Amun, Isetemakhbit-Ikhy. Her title of "God's Mother" (mwt-nṯr) suggests that their son became Pharaoh. This fits well with the appearance of Pharaoh Horsaiset in Upper Egypt.[1]

Biography[]

Several Nile Level Texts at Thebes mention the High Priest Smendes in Years 8, 14 and a lost regnal year. The king's name is deliberately omitted. Relying on the fact that the previous Nile Level was ordered by Iuwalot and dated to Year 5 of a nameless king who could only be Takelot I, it was concluded that the three levels ordered by Smendes were referring to the same pharaoh.[2] Hence, Smendes continued the practice begun by his predecessor of omitting the name of Takelot I from the Nile levels,[3] possibly because of a presumed dynastic quarrel.

Smendes' pontificate continued into the first regnal years of the his nephew, Osorkon II.[4]

Rivalry[]

Takelot I was favored in succession over his brothers Iuwalot and Smendes III, perhaps due to his mother's queenly status. This evidently inspired rivalry to his rule by his brothers in Upper Egypt. Several Nile Level Texts at Thebes mention the High Priests of Amun Iuwalot and Smendes III in Years 5, 8 and 14 of a deliberately anonymous king who can only be their brother Takelot I. This rivalry in the south became even more apparent after Takelot I's reign. When Smendes III died prior to Year 4 of Osorkon II, his son declared himself pharaoh of Upper Egypt as Horsaiset, bestowing his father's post as High Priest of Amun directly onto his own son, Padibastet.

Burial[]

The whereabouts of Smendes' tomb and mummy remain unknown. Given his position, he was presumably buried at the Theban Necropolis.

References[]

  1. Dodson 2019, p. 106.
  2. Kitchen 1996, op. cit., § 96; 157.
  3. Kitchen 1996, op. cit., § 96.
  4. Dodson 2019, p. 105.

Bibliography[]

  • Dodson, A., 2012 (Revised and Updated 2019 Edition): Afterglow of Empire: Egypt from the Fall of the New Kingdom to the Saite Renaissance. The American University in Cairo Press.
  • Kitchen, K.A., 1996: The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (c.1100-650 BC). Aris & Phillips Ltd. third edition.
Predecessor:
Iuwalot
High Priest of Amun
22nd Dynasty
Successor:
Padibastet
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