Ancient Egypt Wiki
Advertisement
Preceded by:
Amenhotep I
Pharaoh of Egypt
18th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Thutmose II
Thutmose I
Ancient Egyptian: Djehutymes
Hellenized: Thutmosis I
Manetho: Misaphris/Miphres
Thutmose I

Statue of Thutmose I from the Museo Egizio in Turin, on exhibition at the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden.©

Reign
1504-1493 BC or
1494-1483 BC (11 years)
Praenomen
M23
t
L2
t
<
ra
O29
L1D28
>
Aakheperkare
Great is the Manifestation
of the Soul of Re
Nomen
G39ra
<
G26F31S29
>
Djehutymes
Born of Thoth
Horus name
G5E1
D40
U6C10O33
Kanakhte-Merymaat
Strong Bull, Beloved of Ma'at
Nebty name
G16N28
a
mn
F20
D21
t
I13O29VF9
F9
Khaemnesret Aapehty
He who appears with the
Uraeus, Great of Stength
Golden Horus
G8nfrM4M4M4sS34F34
F34
F34
Neferrenput Seankhibu
Perfect in Years,
He who makes Hearts Live
Legacy
Mother Senseneb
Consort(s) Ahmose, Mutnofret
Issue Thutmose II, Hatshepsut,
Amenmose, Wadjmose,
Ramose (?), Neferubity
Died 1493 or 1483 BC
Burial KV20, KV38 and later
TT320 (reburials)
Monuments Pylons IV and V and Two Red
Granite Obelisks at Karnak
For other pages by this name, see Thutmose.

Aakheperkare Thutmose I (transliteration: ḏḥty-ms, "Born of Thoth", Hellenized: Thutmosis) was the third Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt during the New Kingdom. His reign is thought to have lasted eleven years and generally dated from 1504 to 1493 B.C.E. Thutmose I was the father of the Pharaohs Thutmose II and Hatshepsut, and was arguably the first king to be buried in the Valley of the Kings (tombs KV20 and KV38).

Name[]

Thutmose I is known as Miphres (Μιφρης) or Misaphris (Μισαφρις) in Manetho's Epitome. Upon coronation, Thutmose I adopted the throne name (or prenomen) Aakheperkare (transliteration: ꜥꜣ-ḫpr-kꜣ-rꜥ, meaning: "Great is the Manifestations of the Soul of Re"). He is occassionally attested with the epithet Khaneferu (transliteration: ḫꜥ-nfr.w, meaning: "Appearing in Perfection") or Khamire (transliteration: ḫꜥ-mỉ-rꜥ, meaning: "Appearing like Re") after his birth name (or nomen). His name is thus realised as Aakheperkare Djehutymes. Due to the influence of Greek transcriptions, Djehutymes is rendered as Thutmose, Thutmoses, or Thutmosis.

Family[]

See also: 18th Dynasty Family Tree.

The identity of Thutmose I's father remains unknown, but he does not seem to have been related to the preceding royal family line. His mother is recorded as Senseneb and believed to have been a commoner.[1] His queen consort was Ahmose, probably the daughter of Ahmose II and the sister of Amenhotep I.[1] Assuming she was, it could be thought that she was married to Thutmose in order to guarantee succession. However, this is known not to be the case for two reasons. Firstly, Amenhotep's alabaster barque shrine built at Karnak associates Amenhotep's name with that of Thutmose well before the former's death.[2] Secondly, Thutmose's first-born son with Queen Ahmose, Amenmose, was apparently born long before Thutmose's coronation. Amenmose can be seen hunting near Memphis on a stela from Year 4 of Thutmose I, and he became the "Chief Commander of the Army of his Father" sometime before he predeceased his father prior to Year 12.[3] Thutmose I and Ahmose are known to have had two daughters; Hatshepsut and Neferubity.

Thutmose I had a secondary wife, Mutnofret, who was a sister of his principal wife, Ahmose.[4] She was probably the mother of the princes; Wadjmose, Thutmose II, and Ramose,[5] as they are all mentioned in the Theban Mortuary chapel of Wadjmose. Wadjmose predeceased his father, and Neferubity probably did as well.[6] Thutmose II succeeded his father.[6] though it was later recorded that Thutmose I willed the kingship to both Thutmose II and Hatshepsut, whom he united in marriage. However, this is often viewed as Hatshepsut's propaganda to legitimize her claim to the throne when she later assumed power.[7]

Dates and Length of Reign[]

ThutmoseI

Stone head, most likely depicting Thutmose I, at the British Museum, London.

A heliacal rising of Sothis was recorded in Year 9 of the reign of Thutmose's predecessor, Amenhotep I, which has been dated to 1517 BC, assuming the observation was made at Thebes.[8] The year of Amenhotep's death and Thutmose's subsequent coronation can be accordingly derived, and is dated to 1506 BC by most modern scholars. However, if the observation were made at either Heliopolis or Memphis, as a minority of scholars promote, Thutmose would have been coronated in 1526 BC[9] Elephantine has also been proposed as location of the observation, which would conclude Thutmose's coronation in 1494 BC.[10]

Manetho records that Thutmose I's reign lasted 12 Years and 9 Months – or 13 Years – as a certain Mephres in his Epitome. This data is supported by 2 dated inscriptions from Years 8 and 9 of his reign bearing his cartouche found inscribed on a stone block in Karnak.[11] Accordingly, Thutmose is usually given a reign from 1506 or 1504 BC to 1493 BC in the middle chronology, but a minority of scholars following the high chonology would date him from 1526 or 1524 BC to 1513 BC,[8] while the low chronology results in a reign from 1496 or 1494 BC to 1483 BC.

Foreign Policy[]

Upon Thutmose's coronation, Nubia rebelled against Egyptian rule. According to the tomb texts of Ahmose, son of Ebana, Thutmose traveled down the Nile and fought in the battle, personally killing the Nubian king.[12] Upon victory he had the Nubian king's body hung from the prow of his ship, before he returned to Thebes.[12] After that campaign, he had the canal at the first cataract built by Senusret III dredged, which facilitated better travel upstream, and helped to better intigrate Nubia into the Egyptian empire.[13] In the second year of Thutmose's reign, he cut a stele at Tombos, which also notes that he built a fortress at Tombos, near the third cataract, thus permanently extending the Egyptian military presence, which had previously stopped at Buhen, at the second cataract.[14] which indicates that he already fought a campaign in Syria, so with his first regnal year dedicated to his first Nubian campaign, his Syrian campaign is placed in the beginning of his second regnal year.[15]

This second campaign was the farthest north any Egyptain had ever campaigned. Although it has not been found in modern times, he apparently set up a stele when he crossed the Euphrates River.[16] During this campaign, the Syrian princes switched alliegence to Thutmose in name only, however after he returned, they discontinued tribute and began fortifying against future incursions.[6] Thutmose celebrated his victories with an elephant hunt in the area of Niya, near Apamea in Syria,[3] and returned to Egypt with strange tales of the Euphrates, "that inverted water which flows upstream when it ought to be flowing downstream."[6] The Euphrates was the first major river which the Egyptians had ever encountered which flowed from the north, which was downstream on the nile, to the south, which was upstream on the nile. Thus the river became known in Egypt as simply, "inverted water."[6]

Thutmose had to face one more military threat, another rebellion by Nubia in his fourth year.[15] His influence accordingly expanded even farther south, as an inscription dated to his reign has been found as far south as Kurgus, south of the fourth cataract.[16] During his reign, he initiated a number of projects which effectively ended Nubian independence for the next 500 years. He enlarged a temple to Sesostris III and Khnum, opposite the Nile from Semna.[17] There are also records of specific religious rites which the viceroy of el-Kab was to have performed in the temples in Nubia in proxy for the king.[18] Most effective of all his acts, however, he appointed a man called Turi to the position of Viceroy of Kush, also known as the "Kings Son of Kush."[19] With a civilian representative of the king permanently established in Nubia itself, the subjected people of the region did not dare to revolt nearly as often, and was easily maintained by future kings.[15]

Monuments and Attestations[]

An avid builder, Thutmose commissioned many construction projects during his rule, including the first undisputed tomb carved out at the Valley of the Kings.[16] Many of his projects were at the Karnak temple complex under the supervision of the architect Ineni.[20] Previous to Thutmose, Karnak probably consisted only of a long road to a central platform, with a number of shrines for the solar bark along the side of the road.[21] Thutmose had the fifth pylon built along that road, along with a wall to run around the inner sanctuary. Outside of this, he built a fourth pylon and another enclosure wall.[21] Between pylons four and five, he had a Hypostyle Hall constructed, with columns made of cedar wood. Along the edge of this room he built colossal statues, each one alternating wearing the crown of Upper Egypt and the crown of Lower Egypt.[21] Finally, outside of the fourth pylon, he erected two obelisks, however one of them, which now has fallen, was not inscribed until Thutmose III inscribed it about 50 years later.[20] The cedar columns in Thutmose I's hypostyle hall were replaced with stone columns by Thutmose III, however at least the northernmost two were replace by Thutmose I himself.[20] Hatshepsut also erected two of her own obelisks inside of Thutmose I's hypostyle hall.[21] In addition to Karnak, Thumose I also built statues of the Ennead at Abydos, buildings at Armant, Kom Ombo, el-Hiba, Memphis, and Edfu, as well as minor expansions to buildings in Nubia, at Semna, Buhen, Aniba, and Quban.[22] Ineni was commissioned to dig Thutmose's tomb, and presumably to build his mortuary temple.[3] His mortuary temple has not been found, quite possibly because it was incorporated into or demolished by the construction of Hatshepsut's mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahari.[23] His tomb, however, has been identified as KV32, which is believed to be the first tomb dug in the Valley of the Kings. In it was found a yellow quartzite sarcophagus bearing the name of Thutmose I.[1] His body, however, may have been moved by Thutmose III into the tomb of Hatshepsut, KV20, which also contains a sarcophagus with the name of Thutmose I on it.[16]

Burial and Succession[]

Thutmose I was succeeded by his son Thutmose II, although his daughter Hatshepsut began to wield substantial power. Thutmose I is believed to have been originally buried somewhere unknown and then reburied in the KV20 rock-cut tomb in the Valley of the Kings, a double burial with his daughter Hatshepsut. He was later reburied again in KV38, which could only have been built for Thutmose I during the reign of his grandson Thutmose III based on "a recent re-examination of the architecture and contents of KV38".[24]

Mummy[]

During the 21st Dynasty, Thutmose I's mummy was reburied in the royal cache at Deir el-Bahari above the mortuary temple of Hatshepsut, which was discovered by authorities in 1881. He was interred along with other New Kingdom rulers including; Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Thutmose II, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX, as well as the 21st dynasty rulers; Pinedjem I, Pinedjem II, and Siamun.

The original coffin of Thutmose I was taken over and re-used by a later pharaoh of the 21st dynasty. Originally the mummy of Thutmose I was thought to be lost, but Egyptologist Gaston Maspero, largely on the strength of familial resemblance to the mummies of Thutmose II and Thutmose III, believed he had found his mummy in the otherwise unlabelled mummy #5283.[25] This identification has been supported by subsequent examinations, revealing that the embalming techniques used came from the appropriate period of time, almost certainly after that of Ahmose I and made during the course of the Eighteenth dynasty.[26]

Gaston Maspero described the mummy in the following manner:

Thutmose I Mummy

Mummyhead believed to be Thutmose I (Smith 1912).

The king was already advanced in age at the time of his death, being over fifty years old, to judge by the incisor teeth, which are worn and corroded by the impurities of which the Egyptian bread was full. The body, though small and emaciated, shows evidence of unusual muscular strength; the head is bald, the features are refined, and the mouth still bears an expression characteristic of shrewdness and cunning.[25]

While held at the Cairo Museum, the mummy had the inventory number CG 61065.[27] In 1991, James Harris and Fawzia Hussien conducted an X-ray survey on New Kingdom royal mummies and examined the mummified remains of Thutmose I. The results of the study determined that the mummy of Thutmose I had all the craniofacial characteristics common among Nubian populations and a "typical Nubian morphology".[28]

However, in 2007, Dr. Zahi Hawass announced that the mummy which was previously thought to be Thutmose I is that of a thirty-year-old man who had died as a result of an arrow wound to the chest. Because of the young age of the mummy and the cause of death, it was determined that the mummy was probably not that of Pharaoh Thutmose I himself.[29] The arms of the mummy were also not crossed over the chest, which is to be expected with a mummified king.

In April 2021 his "supposed" mummy was moved from the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities to National Museum of Egyptian Civilization along with those of 17 other kings and 4 queens in an event termed the Pharaohs' Golden Parade.[30]

See also[]

References[]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Gardiner 1964, p. 176.
  2. Grimal 1988, p. 203.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Gardiner 1964, p. 179.
  4. Dodson & Hilton 2004, p. 126.
  5. Tyldesley 1996.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Steindorff & Seele 1942, p. 36.
  7. Erman 1894, p. 43.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Grimal 1988, p. 202.
  9. Helk 1983, p. 47-49.
  10. Krauss 2006, p. 441.
  11. Von Beckerath 1997, p. 120.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Steindorff & Seele 1942, p. 34.
  13. Breasted 1906, p. 36.
  14. Breasted 1906, p. 28.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Steindorff & Seele 1942, p. 35.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Shaw & Nicholson 1995, p. 289.
  17. Erman 1894, p. 503.
  18. Breasted 1906, p. 25.
  19. Breasted 1906, p. 27.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Breasted 1906, p. 41.
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 Grimal 1988, p. 300.
  22. "Thutmosis I". Accessed August 2, 2006.
  23. Gardiner 1964, p. 170.
  24. Tyldesley 1996, p. 121-125.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Maspero 1901.
  26. Smith 1912.
  27. Habicht et al. 2016.
  28. Harris & Hussien 1991, p. 235–239.
  29. Anderson, Lisa (14 July 2007). "Mummy awakens new era in Egypt". Chicago Tribune.
  30. Parisse, Emmanuel (5 April 2021). "22 Ancient Pharaohs Have Been Carried Across Cairo in an Epic Golden Parade". ScienceAlert.

Bibliography[]

  • Beckerath, J. von, 1997: Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz.
  • Breasted, J.H., 1906: Ancient Records of Egypt. Vol. II. University of Chicago Press.
  • Dodson, A./Hilton, D., 2004: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson, London.
  • Erman, A., 1894: Life in Ancient Egypt. Macmilian and Company, London.
  • Gardiner, A., 1964: Egypt of the Pharaohs. Oxford University Press.
  • Grimal, N., 1988: A History of Ancient Egypt. Librairie Arthéme Fayard.
  • Habicht M.E./Henneberg M./Öhrström L.M./Staub K./Rühli F.J., 2015: Body Height of Mummified Pharaohs Supports Historical Suggestions of Sibling Mariages. American Journal of Physical Anthropology.
  • Harris, J.E./Hussien, F., 1991: The identification of the Eighteenth Dynasty royal mummies; a biological perspective. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, Vol. 1 (3–4).
  • Helk, W., 1983: Schwachstellen der Chronologie-Diskussion. Göttinger Miszellen.
  • Krauss, R., 2006: Egyptian Sirius/Sothic dates. In: Hornung, E., Krauss, R. and Warburton, D. (eds.). Ancient Egyptian Chronology. Handbook of Oriental Studies. ch. III.10, Brill.
  • Maspero, G., 1901: History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria. Volume 4 (of 12). Project Gutenberg EBook. Release Date: December 16 2005. Archived from original on 2015-09-24.
  • Shaw, I./Nicholson, P., 1995: The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. The British Museum Press.
  • Smith, G.E., 1912: The Royal Mummies: Catalogue Général des Antiquités Égyptiennes du Musée de Caire. Duckworth Egyptology (Reprinted year 2000 version).
  • Steindorff, G./Seele, K., 1942: When Egypt Ruled the East. University of Chicago.
  • Tyldesley, J., 1996: Hatchepsut: The Female Pharaoh. Viking, London.

External links[]

Predecessor:
Amenhotep I
Pharaoh of Egypt
18th Dynasty
Successor:
Thutmose II
Advertisement