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Preceded by:
Thutmose I
Pharaoh of Egypt
18th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Hatshepsut
Thutmose II
Ancient Egyptian: Djehutymes
Hellenized: Thutmosis II
Manetho: Chebron
ThutmoseII

Relief of Thutmose II at Karnak.

Reign
1493-1479 BC (13-14 years) or
1483-1479 BC (3-4 years)
Praenomen
M23
t
L2
t
<
N5
O29
L1
n
>
Aakheperenre
Great is the Manefestation
of Re
Nomen
G39N5
<
G26F31S29nfrN28
Z2
>
Djehutymes-Neferkhau
Born of Thoth, Perfect of
Appearances
Horus name
G5
E1
D40
wsrsF9
F9
Srxtail2
Kanakhte-Userpehty
Strong Bull,
Powerful of Strength
Nebty name
G16
R8M23iit
Y1
Netjernesyt
Divine of Kingship
Golden Horus
G8
S42L1G43Y1
Z2
Sekhemkheperu
Powerful of Forms
Legacy
Father Thutmose I
Mother Mutnofret
Consort(s) Hatshepsut, Iset
Issue Thutmose III, Neferure
Died 1479 BC
Burial TT320 (reburial)
For other pages by this name, see Thutmose.

Aakheperenre Thutmose II (transliteration: ḏḥty-ms, meaning: "Born of Thoth", Hellenized: Thutmosis) was the fourth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt during the New Kingdom. His reign has generally been dated from 1493 to 1479 B.C.E. Throughout his reign, Thutmose II was probably dominated by his wife, Hatshepsut, although he is known to have carried out at least two minor campaigns.

Name[]

Thutmose II is known as Chebros (Χεβρως) or Chebron (Χεβρων) in Manetho's Epitome. Upon coronation, Thutmose II adopted the throne name (or prenomen) Aakheperenre (transliteration: ꜥꜣ-ḫpr-n-rꜥ, meaning: "Great is the Manifestations of Re"). He is occassionally attested with the epithet Neferkhau (transliteration: nfr-ḫꜥw, meaning: "Perfect of Appearances") after his birth name (or nomen). His name is thus realised as Aakheperenre Djehutymes-Khakhau. Due to the influence of Greek transcriptions, Djehutymes is rendered as Thutmose, Thutmoses, or Thutmosis.

Family[]

See also: 18th Dynasty Family Tree.

Thutmose II was the son of Thutmose I by a minor wife, Mutnofret. He was therefore a lesser son of Thutmose I, married to his fully royal half-sister, Hatshepsut, to secure kingship. While he successfully put down rebellions in Nubia and the Levant and defeated a group of nomadic Bedouins, these campaign were specifically carried out by the king's generals, and not by Thutmose II himself. This is often interpreted as evidence that Thutmose II was still a minor at his accession. Thutmose II fathered Neferure with Hatshepsut, but also managed to father a male heir, the famous Thutmose III, by a lesser wife named Iset before his death.

Some archaeologists believe that Hatshepsut was the real power behind the throne during Thutmose II's rule because of the similar domestic and foreign policies which were later pursued under her reign and because of her claim that she was her father's intended heir. She later had herself crowned Pharaoh after his death early during Thutmose III's reign.

Dates and Length of Reign[]

Manetho's Epitome calls Thutmose "Chebron", (a reference to his prenomen, Aakheperenre) and gives him a reign of 13 years, but this figure is highly disputed among scholars. Some Egyptologists prefer to shorten his reign by a full decade to only 3 Years because his Highest Year Date is only a Year 1 stela.[citation needed] The reign length of Thutmose II has been a controversial and much debated subject among Egyptologists with little consensus given the small number of surviving documents for his reign, but a long reign is usually preferred by scholars. As for the date of his reign, it is still possible to estimate when his reign would have begun by means of a Heliacal Rise of Sothis in Amenhotep I's reign, which would give him a reign from 1493 BC to 1479 BC,[1] although uncertanty about how to interpret the rise also permits a date from 1513 BC to 1499 BC,[2] and uncertanty about how long Thutmose I ruled could also potentially place his reign several years earlier still. Nonetheless, scholars generally assign him a reign from 1493 or 1492 to 1479 BC.[1][3]

Argument for a Short Reign[]

Ineni, who was already aged by the beginning of his reign, lived through his entire reign into that of Hatshepsut.[4] In addition, he is poorly attested in the monumental record and in the contemporary tomb autobiographies of New Kingdom officials. A clear count of monuments from his rule, which is the principal tool for estimating a king's reign when dated documents are not avalable, is nearly impossible, because Hatshepsut usurped most of his monuments, and in turn Thutmose III reinscribed Thutmose II's name indiscriminately over other monuments.[5] In addition, almost all his monuments were usurped by building projects of later pharaohs, especially Amenhotep III.[citation needed] In 1987, Luc Gabolde published an important study [6] which statistically compared the number of surviving Scarabs found under Thutmose I, Thutmose II and Hatshepsut. While monuments can be usurped, scarabs are so small and comparatively insignificant changing their names would be impractical and without profit, so they provide better insight to this period. Hatshepsut's reign length is known to be 21 Years and 9 Months. Gabolde highlighted - in his analysis - the relatively small number of surviving scarabs known for Thutmose II compared to Thutmose I and Hatshepsut, and estimated Thutmose I and II's reigns to be approximately 11 and 3 full years respectively.

Argument for a Long Reign[]

Thutmose's reign is still traditionally given 13 or 14 years. Although Ineni's testemony can be interpreted to say that Thutmose reigned only a short time, it also calls Thutmose a "hawk in the nest," indicating that he was a child when he assumed the throne,[4] and he did leave behind a number of children, which indicates that he lived at least long enough to start a family. The German Egyptologist, J. Von Beckerath, uses this line of argument to support the case of a 13 Year reign for Thutmose II.[7] Alan Gardiner had noted that at one point, a monument had been identified which was dated to Thutmose's 18th year, although where it came from can not now be identified,[8] and this inscription has also been attributed to Hatshepsut, who with certainty did have an 18th year. Finally, Von Beckerath also notes the curious fact that Hatshepsut celebrated her Sed Jubilee in her Year 16 which he believes would have occurred 30 Years after the death of Thutmose I, her father, who was the sole source of her claim to power. This would ​create a gap of 13-14 Years where Tuthmose II's reign would fit in.[7]

Foreign Policy[]

Thutmose II was not nearly as much of a military pharaoh as either his father was or his son would be, but he did campaign on two occasions.

Upon Thutmose's coronation, Kush rebelled, as it had the habit of doing upon the transition of Egyptian kingship. The Nubian state had been completely subjugated by Thutmose I,[9] but some rebels from Khenthennofer rose up, and the Egyptian colonists retreated into a fortress built by Thutmose I.[10] On account of his youth at the time, Thutmose II sent an army into Nubia rather than leading it himself, but he seems to have easily crushed this revolt.[11]

Thutmose also seems to have fought against the Shasu Bedouin in the Sinai, in a campaign mentioned by Ahmose-Pennekhbet.[8] Although this campaign has been called a minor raid, there is a fragment recorded by Kurt Sethe of a campaign in upper Canaan, or Syria, which appears to have reached as far as a place called Niya where Thutmose I hunted Elephants after returning from crossing the Euphrates.[12] This quite possibly indicates that the raid against the Shasu was only fought en route to Syria.[12]

Burial and Succession[]

Thutmose II was succeeded upon death by his son Thutmose III, though he was still too young to rule and Hatshepsut ruled for him. However, she would eventually become pharaoh in her own right. After her demise, Thutmose III inherited the throne.

The KV42 rock-cut tomb in the Valley of the Kings had been proposed as that of Thutmose II, but no trace of royal funerary equipment was found in the tomb, making it doubtful that the tomb was ever used for a royal burial.[13] Catherine Roerig has proposed that KV20 was the original tomb of Thutmose II in the Valley of the Kings. However, it is generally believed that KV20 was originally quarried for Thutmose I and later re-cut and refurbished during the reign of Hatshepsut to accommodate the burial of both her and her father.[14] Thutmose II's original tomb thus far remains uncertain.

Mummy[]

During the 21st Dynasty, Thutmose II's mummy was reburied in the royal cache at Deir el-Bahari above the mortuary temple of Hatshepsut, which was discovered by authorities in 1881. He was interred along with other New Kingdom rulers including; Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX, as well as the 21st dynasty rulers; Pinedjem I, Pinedjem II, and Siamun.

ThutmoseIIMummy

Mummy of Thutmose II (Smith 1912).

Thutmose II's mummy has the inventory number CG 61066.[15] The mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on July 1, 1886. There is a strong familial resemblance to the mummy of Thutmoze I, his likely father, as the mummy face and shape of the head are very similar. The body of Thutmose II suffered greatly at the hands of ancient tomb robbers, with his left arm broken off at the shoulder-joint, the forearm separated at the elbow joint, and his right arm chopped off below the elbow. His anterior abdominal wall and much of his chest had been hacked at, possibly by an axe. In addition, his right leg had been severed from his body.[16] All of these injuries were sustained post-mortem, though the body also showed signs that Thutmose II did not have an easy life, as the following quote by Gaston Maspero attests:

He had scarcely reached the age of thirty when he fell a victim to a disease of which the process of embalming could not remove the traces. The skin is scabrous in patches, and covered with scars, while the upper part of the skull is bald; the body is thin and somewhat shrunken, and appears to have lacked vigour and muscular power.[17]

CT-analysis of his mummy performed as part of a 2007-2009 study revealed Thutmose II suffered kyphoscoliosis as well as pes cavus, a potentially painful foot deformity. Further revealed evidence suggests an incisional hernia and calcified heart valves.[18] Thutmose II "had an enlarged heart [and] probably suffer[ed from] arrhythmias and shortness of breath".[19]

In April 2021 his mummy was moved from the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities to National Museum of Egyptian Civilization along with those of 17 other kings and 4 queens in an event termed the Pharaohs' Golden Parade.[20]

See also[]

References[]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Grimal 1988, p. 204.
  2. Helk 1983, p. 47-49.
  3. Shaw & Nicholson 1995, p. 289.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Breasted 1906, p. 47.
  5. Grimal 1988, p. 216.
  6. Gabolde 1987, p. 61–87.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Von Beckerath 1997.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Gardiner 1964, p. 180.
  9. Steindorff & Seele 1943, p. 35.
  10. Breasted 1906, p. 49.
  11. Breasted 1906, p. 50.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Breasted 1906, p. 51.
  13. Eaton-Krauss 1999, p. 113–129.
  14. "The Theban Mapping Project: KV20 - Thutmes I and Hatshepsut".
  15. Habicht et al. 2016.
  16. Smith 1912, p. 28-29.
  17. Maspero 1901, p. 354.
  18. Hawass et al. 2010, p. 645.
  19. Cooney 2015, p. 53.
  20. Parisse, Emmanuel (5 April 2021). "22 Ancient Pharaohs Have Been Carried Across Cairo in an Epic Golden Parade". ScienceAlert.

Bibliography[]

  • Beckerath, J. von, 1997: Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten. MÄS 46, Philip von Zabern, Mainz.
  • Breasted, J.H., 1906: Ancient Records of Egypt. Vol. II. University of Chicago Press.
  • Cooney, K., 2015: The Woman Who Would be King. Oneworld Publications.
  • Eaton-Krauss, M., 1999: The Fate of Sennefer and Senetnay at Karnak Temple and in the Valley of the Kings. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. Vol. 85.
  • Gabolde, L., 1987: La Chronologie du règne de Thoutmosis II, ses conséquences sur la datation des momies royales et leurs répercutions sur l'histoire du développement de la Vallée des Rois. SAK, Vol. 14.
  • Gardiner, A., 1964: Egypt of the Pharaohs. Oxford University Press.
  • Grimal, N., 1988: A History of Ancient Egypt. Librairie Arthéme Fayard.
  • Habicht, M./Rühli, F./Bouwman, A., 2016: Identification of Ancient Egyptian Royal Mummies from the 18th Dynasty reconsidered. American Journal of Physical Anthropology.
  • Hawass, Z./Gad, Y.Z./Ismail, S./Khairat, R./Fathall, A.D./Hasan, N./Ahmed, A./Elleithy, H./Ball, M./Gaballah, F./Wasef, S./Fateen, M./Amer, H./Gostner, P./Selim, A./Zink, A./Pusch, C.M., 2010: Ancestry and pathology in King Tutankhamun’s family. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 303 (7).
  • Helk, W., 1983: Schwachstellen der Chronologie-Diskussion. Göttinger Miszellen.
  • Maspero, G., 1901: History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria. Volume 4 (of 12). Project Gutenberg EBook. Release Date: December 16 2005. Archived from original on 2015-09-24.
  • Shaw, I./Nicholson, P., 1995: The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. The British Museum Press.
  • Smith, G.E., 1912: The Royal Mummies. Duckworth. (Reprinted year 2000 version).
  • Steindorff, G./Seele, K., 1942: When Egypt Ruled the East. University of Chicago Press.
Predecessor:
Thutmose I
Pharaoh of Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty
Successor:
Hatshepsut
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