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Viceroy of Kush or King's Son of Kush (Ancient Egyptian: zꜣ-nswt-n-kꜣš) was an ancient Egyptian occupational title. The viceroy of Kush was essentially a Vizier of the Egyptian colony Kush in Nubia, as his paramount duty was to supervise the running of the colony and reporting directly to the Pharaoh. He was thus the pharaoh's highest sealbearer in the land. All other lesser supervisors and officials in Kush, such as tax collectors and scribes, reported to the viceroy.

Viceroy of Kush

Additional titles of the Viceroy[]

Some secondary titles held exclusively by the Viceroy of Kush are:

  • Overseer of the Foreign Land of Kush (m-r-ḫꜣs.t-kꜣš)
  • Overseer of the Southern Lands (m-r-rsyw.t)
  • Overseer of the Gold Lands of Amun (m-r-ḫꜣs.t-nbw-n-mn)


The former Kingdom of Kerma in Nubia, was a province of ancient Egypt from the 16th century BCE to eleventh century BCE. During this period, the polity was ruled by the Viceroy of Kush.

The Viceroy of Kush ruled the area north of the Third Cataract. The area was divided into Wawat in the north, centered at Aniba, and Kush in the south, centered at Soleb during the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt and then western Amara.

During transition from the Twentieth to the Twenty-first Dynasty, powerful military officials such as Piankh and Herihor became High Priest of Amun while simultaneously holding the office of Viceroy of Kush, effectively ruling over Upper Egypt and Nubia. The association of the viceroy title with the High Priest might have occurred as an attempt to preserve the cult of Amun in the surviving viceregal holdings south of Aswan. Despite the effort, Egyptian control over Nubia continued to decline. The High Priest Pinedjem II bestowed the title of viceroy upon his wife Neskhonsu,[1] making her the first female viceroy. She might have been succeeded in office by Karimala, who is suggested to have been the queen consort of Pharaoh Siamun.[2]

List of Viceroys[]

Below is a list of viceroys mainly based on a list assembled by George Reisner.[3]

Viceroy Dynasty Pharaoh Comment
Ahmose-Sitayit 18th Dynasty Ahmose I[4] Possibly the first Viceroy.
Ahmose-Turo 18th Dynasty Amenhotep I and Thutmose I Son of Ahmose-Sitayit.
Seni 18th Dynasty Thutmose I and Thutmose II
Penre 18th Dynasty Hatshepsut
Inebni-Amenemnekhu 18th Dynasty Hatshepsut and Thutmose III First attested in year 18, and serving until about year 22.
Nehy 18th Dynasty Thutmose III Attested in year 22 or 23 of Tuthmosis III.
Usersatet 18th Dynasty Amenhotep II
Amenhotep 18th Dynasty Thutmose IV and Amenhotep III
Merymose 18th Dynasty Amenhotep III
Thutmose 18th Dynasty Akhenaten
Amenhotep-Huy 18th Dynasty Tutankhamun Buried in TT40.
Nakhtmin (?) 18th Dynasty Ay (?) His title "King's Son [of Kush]" (Viceroy) is disputed.
Paser I 18th Dynasty Ay (?) and Horemheb Son of the Viceroy Amenhotep-Huy.
Amenemopet 19th Dynasty Seti I and Ramesses II Son of Paser and grandson of Amenhotep-Huy.
Yuny 19th Dynasty Ramesses II Served as Head of the Stable under Seti I and was later promoted to Viceroy.[5]
Heqanakhte 19th Dynasty Ramesses II
Paser II 19th Dynasty Ramesses II Son of the High Priest of Min and Isis named Minmose. Related to the family of Parennefer-Wennefer.
Huy 19th Dynasty Ramesses II[6] He may have served either before or after Setau. Huy was also Mayor of Tjaru and a Royal Messenger to the Hatti. According to an inscription, he escorted Queen Maathorneferure from Hatti to Egypt.
Setau 19th Dynasty Ramesses II
Anhotep 19th Dynasty Ramesses II[6] Buried in TT300.
Mernudjem 19th Dynasty possibly a Viceroy under Ramesses II[6]
Khaemtir 19th Dynasty Merenptah[7]
Messuy 19th Dynasty Merenptah, perhaps Amenmesses, and Seti II
Seti 19th Dynasty Siptah
Hori I 20th Dynasty Setnakhte Son of Kama.
Hori II 20th Dynasty Ramesses III and Ramesses IV Son of Hori I.
Saiset 20th Dynasty Ramesses VI
Nahihor 20th Dynasty Ramesses VII and perhaps Ramesses VIII
Wentawat 20th Dynasty Ramesses IX Son of Nahihor.
Ramessesnakhte 20th Dynasty Ramesses IX[8] Son of Wentawat.
Setmose 20th Dynasty Ramesses XI[9]
Panehesy 20th Dynasty Ramesses XI Played a role in suppressing the High Priest of Amun Amenhotep.
Piankh 20th Dynasty Ramesses XI Piankh was also High Priest of Amun.
Herihor 20th and 21st Dynasty Ramesses XI and Smendes I Herihor was also High Priest of Amun.
Pinedjem I (?) 21st Dynasty Smendes I, Amenemnisut and Psusennes I Pinedjem I was High Priest of Amun. Although not attested as viceroy, he probably held the title.
Aakheperre 21st Dynasty Psusennes I and Amenemopet The el-Hibeh archive attests him as Third Prophet of Amun and Viceroy of Kush.[10]
Neskhonsu 21st Dynasty Osorkon and Siamun Daughter of the HPA Smendes II and wife of the HPA Pinedjem II. Buried in the royal cache at Deir el-Bahari.
Karimala (?) 21st Dynasty Siamun (?) and Psusennes II Possibly a daughter of Pharaoh Osorkon and wife of Pharaoh Siamun.[11] Might have been viceroy after Neskhonsu.[2]
Pamiu I 23rd Dynasty Osorkon III Attested as viceroy on the coffins of his grandsons.[10]

See also[]


  1. Edwards 2004, p. 106, 117.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Bennett 1999.
  3. Reisner 1920, p. 28-55, 73-88.
  4. Edwards 2000, p. 299, 348.
  5. Reisner 1920, p. 73-88.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Kitchen 1996.
  7. Dodson 2010.
  8. Pamminger 1993, p. 79-86.
  9. Bohleke 1985, p. 13-24.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Broekman 2010, p. 125-148.
  11. Bennett 1999, p. 7-8.


  • Bennett, C., 1999: Queen Karimala, Daughter of Osochor? Göttinger Miszellen, Vol. 173.
  • Bohleke, B., 1985: An Ex Voto of the Previously Unrecognized Viceroy Setmose. Göttinger Miszellen, Vol. 85.
  • Broekman, G.P.F., 2010: The Leading Theban Priests of Amun and their Families under Libyan Rule. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 96, p. 125-148.
  • Dodson, A., 2010: Poisoned Legacy: The Fall of the Nineteenth Egyptian Dynasty. American University in Cairo Press.
  • Edwards, I.E.S., 2000: The Cambridge Ancient History. Volumes 1-3. Cambridge University Press.
  • Edwards, D., 2004: The Nubian Past. Routledge, Oxon.
  • Kitchen, K.A., 1996: Ramesside Inscriptions. Translated & Annotated, Translations, Volume III, Blackwell Publishers.
  • Pamminger, P., 1993: Buhen, Südtempel, Säule 26 (32) und der Vizekönig von Kusch Raca-msj-snḫt. Göttinger Miszellen, Vol. 137.
  • Reisner, G.A., 1920: The Viceroys of Ethiopia. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1 & 2.